PBCDD and PBCDF from incineration of waste-containing brominated flame retardants
2002 (English)In: Environmental science & technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 36, no 9, 1959-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Brominated organic flame retardants comprise a large, heterogeneous group of compounds that are useful but also potentially damaging to the environment. In this investigation, three common brominated flame retardants were co-combusted with an artificial municipal solid waste in a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator. Combustion conditions ensured degradation of the flame retardants, but stable brominated organic compounds such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans were formed in the cooling flue gases. The incineration of fuels that contain both chlorine and bromine leads to the formation of a complex mixture of polybrominated/ chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. More bromination than chlorination was observed in these experiments, and the chlorination levels increased when bromine was added to the fuel. The most favored reactions led to the formation of dibromodichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dibromodichlorodibenzofuran. Theoretical calculations show that there is more Br than Cl in the flue gas when the two halogens are present at equimolar levels, because chlorine is mainly found in the form of HCl. This may explain the higher bromination level. BrCl is also present, which drives the chlorination observed when bromine is added.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 36, no 9, 1959-64 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-8847OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-8847DiVA: diva2:148518