Evaluation of modulators and electron-capture detectors for comprehensive two-dimensional GC of halogenated organic compounds
2003 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1019, no 1-2, 65-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Different cryogenic and a heated GC×GC modulator(s) were evaluated and compared for the analysis of high-boiling halogenated compounds. The cryogenic modulators investigated were: (i) the longitudinally modulated cryogenic system; (ii) the liquid-nitrogen-cooled jet modulator (KT2001); (iii) a dual-jet CO2 modulator (made in-house); (iv) a semi-rotating cryogenic modulator (made in-house) and (v) a CO2 loop modulator (KT2003); the heated modulator was the slotted heater system (sweeper). Each modulator was optimised with respect to analyte peak widths at half height in the second-dimension. n-Alkanes, chlorinated alkanes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and fluorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (F-PAHs) were used as test analytes. The flow rate of the coolant was found to be an important parameter, i.e. the flow rate of the gaseous nitrogen in the KT2001, and of the liquid CO2 in the other cryogenic modulators. For the slotted heater the stroke velocity and pause time were important parameters. This modulator had a limited application range in terms of temperature due to a necessary 100 °C difference between sweeper and oven temperature. All cryogenic modulators were found to be suitable for the GC×GC analysis of high-boiling compounds, but the CO2 modulators are to be preferred to the KT2001 due to a wider application range and slightly narrower peaks. As regards the performance of three commercially available electron-capture detectors (ECDs), the aim was to obtain narrow peak widths in GC×GC, i.e. to avoid band broadening caused by the cell volume. The most important parameters were the flow rate of the make-up gas and the detector temperature which both should be as high as possible. Comparison of analyte peak widths obtained with ECD mode and flame ionisation detection (FID) showed that all ECDs exhibited band broadening compared to the FID. The narrowest peaks were obtained with the Agilent micro-ECD, which has a cell volume of only 150 μl.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 1019, no 1-2, 65-77 p.
Modulators, Electron-capture detector, Gas chromatography, comprehensive two-dimensional
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-9214DOI: doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(03)01237-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-9214DiVA: diva2:148885
First International Symposium on Comprehensive Multidimensional Gas Chromatography2008-03-112008-03-112012-06-07Bibliographically approved