Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
On Dioxin Formation in Iron Ore Sintering
Show others and affiliations
2003 (English)In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 37, no 15, 3323-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iron ore sintering is an important source of "dioxins", polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This paper reports on attempts to identify materials, conditions, and mechanisms responsible for PCDD/F formation (i) by investigating salient properties of ores (viz., with respect to oxidation, condensation, and chlorination of model organics) and (ii) by mimicking the industrial process on a microscale with real-life materials. Principles of Design of Experiments (DOE) are employed. The reactivities of iron ores differ greatly. Limonite/goethite "soft" ore is a very active oxidation catalyst (e.g., for benzene and phenol), a property that may be useful in cleaning up crude sintering process offgases, whereas hematite/magnetite "hard" ore is not. The latter, however strongly promotes condensation of phenol to dibenzofuran. A newly built lab-microscale sintering facility could satisfactorily imitate the large-scale process, in part or as a whole. Results obtained with realistic feed mixtures point at dioxin formation in the sinter bed at levels significant enough to explain a major part of the outputs observed in the real-life process. With ~8 ppm (wt) of chloride added as NaCl, the PCDD/F output doubled, but with the same proportion of chlorine administered as C2Cl4, the dioxin output was over 2 orders of magnitude larger. The use of process reverts, etc. containing chlorinated organics should therefore be avoided. PCDD/F congener patterns are also reported and compared with those observed in practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 37, no 15, 3323-31 p.
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-9224DOI: doi:10.1021/es026292gOAI: diva2:148895
Available from: 2008-03-12 Created: 2008-03-12 Last updated: 2011-01-13Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Liljelind, PerMarklund, Stellan
By organisation

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 61 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link