Formation and chlorination of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the post-combustion zone during MSW combustion
2008 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 72, no 8, 1138-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Non- to octa-chlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were analyzed in flue gas samples collected simultaneously at three different temperatures (450 °C, 300 °C and 200 °C, respectively) in the post-combustion zone during waste combustion experiments using a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor. PCN homologue profiles in all samples were dominated by the lower chlorinated homologues (mono- to triCN), with successive reductions in abundance with each additional degree of chlorination. The isomer distribution patterns reflected ortho-directionality behavior of the first chlorine substituent, and the β-positions, i.e. the 2,3,6,7-substitution sites, seemed to be favored for chlorination. Injection of naphthalene into the post-combustion zone resulted in increased PCN levels at 200 °C, demonstrating the occurrence of chlorination reactions in the post-combustion zone. However, the increases were restricted to the least-chlorinated homologue (monoCN), probably because there was insufficient residence time for further chlorination. In addition, an episode of poor combustion (manifested by high CO levels) was accompanied by extensive formation of 1,8-diCN, 1,2,3- and 1,2,8-triCN; congeners with substitution patterns that are not thermodynamically favorable. These are believed to be products of PAH breakdown reactions and/or chlorophenol condensation. Overall, PCN formation is likely to occur via more than one pathway, including chlorination of naphthalene that is already present, de novo synthesis from PAHs and, possibly, chlorophenol condensation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 72, no 8, 1138-44 p.
Laboratory-scale reactor, Injection, Poor combustion, Homologue profiles, Isomer distribution patterns
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-9460DOI: doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.04.002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-9460DiVA: diva2:149131