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Maternal transfer of brominated flame retardants in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
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2008 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 73, no 2, 203-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In many species reproduction and embryonic development have been shown to be sensitive to environmental contaminants. Understanding embryonic exposure to environmental contaminants is thus highly important. In this study concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were measured in zebrafish eggs after parental exposure for 42 days via the diet. Zebrafish were exposed to two doses of eleven structurally-diverse BFRs. Eight BFRs were detected in the female zebrafish and maternal transfer to eggs was evident for all eight compounds. The highest concentrations in eggs were observed for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 2,4,4′-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), followed by 2,2′,3,4,4′,5′,6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 183) and tetrabromobisphenol A 2,3-dibromopropyl ether (TBBPA DBPE). Five potential BFR metabolites were tentatively identified in female fish and maternal transfer was observed also for these compounds. The lipid adjusted concentrations in eggs were significantly higher than the concentrations in female fish for several of the BFRs. Further, the results showed a generally higher transfer in the lower exposure level and also indicated a dependency on the physico-chemical properties of the compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 73, no 2, 203-8 p.
Keyword [en]
Maternal transfer, Dietary Exposure, Zebrafish, Egg, Brominated flame retardants
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-10113DOI: doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.04.033PubMedID: 18514256OAI: diva2:149784
Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) - Papers presented at the Fourth International Symposium, BFR2007, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands 24-27 April 2007Available from: 2008-09-02 Created: 2008-09-02 Last updated: 2010-01-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of selected brominated flame retardants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of selected brominated flame retardants
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are chemicals used in e.g. electronic equipment, textiles and plastics for the prevention of fire. Over recent decades, concern has been raised regarding some heavily used BFRs, since the levels in the environment have been increasing. In the present thesis, persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) properties were studied for a structurally varied set of BFRs selected to represent more than 60 organic BFRs. The studied BFRs include: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE  183), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A 2-hydroxyethyl ether (TBBPA OHEE), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (246BrPh), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), and hexabromobenzene (HxBrBz).

It is likely that soil will act as a sink for BFRs. Therefore, studies of BFRs were performed on persistence in soil, and on bioaccumulation from soil in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Large variation in the biodegradability in soil among the tested BFRs was observed. The studied brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE 28 and BDE 209) were very persistent under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, while 246BrPh and TBECH degraded quickly in both aerobic and anaerobic soil. The bioaccumulation in earthworm from soil was high for HxBrBz, TBECH and for tested brominated diphenyl ethers with 4-6 bromine atoms (BDE 47, BDE 99, and BDE 153). Bioaccumulation was also studied in zebrafish after dietary exposure to a mixture of BFRs. It was shown that several metabolites were formed and retained in zebrafish, which highlights the importance of also searching for and identifying persistent degradation products. Maternal transfer was shown for all BFRs present in the female zebrafish. This shows that zebrafish young (fry) are exposed to these BFRs at approximately the same concentrations as female zebrafish during the early-life stages, when fish are usually most sensitive to organic contaminants. Toxicity of individual BFRs and a BFR mixture was studied in Nitocra spinipes using a silica gel-based system. Highest toxicities were observed for BDE 28, TBBPA, and TBBPA OHEE. In the mixture toxicity study, simultaneous exposure to low concentrations (individually causing no significant effect) of six BFRs significantly affected the survival of Nitocra spinipes. The results from the PBT studies presented in the thesis and literature data were compared with the criteria for PBT classification, as set in the European REACH legislation. Further, some BFRs with physico-chemical properties similar to those of identified PBTs were suggested to be prioritized for future PBT testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Print & Media, 2009. 57 p.
persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, biodegradation, biotransformation, PBT, read across, soil, earthworm, zebrafish, copepod, BFRs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, hexabromobenzene, 2, 4, 6-tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, 2-hydroxyethyl ether, 1, 2-dibromo-4-(1, 2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane
National Category
Environmental Sciences
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22528 (URN)978-91-7264-805-0 (ISBN)
Kemiska institutionen, 90187, Umeå
Public defence
2009-06-05, MA121, MIT-huset, Umeå Universistet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-05-15 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2014-03-10Bibliographically approved

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Rattfelt Nyholm, JennyHaglund, PeterAndersson, Patrik
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