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Demonstration of Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibodies in the male partner of the infertile couple is correlated with a reduced likelihood of achieving pregnancy
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
2004 (English)In: Human Reproduction, ISSN 0268-1161, E-ISSN 1460-2350, Vol. 19, no 5, 1121-1126 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among both men and women seeking help at an infertility clinic, and to prospectively follow the effect of previous infection on pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcome after a long follow-up period (mean 37 months). 

METHODS: A total of 244 infertile couples was tested for C. trachomatis IgG antibodies, and IgG(+) couples were also tested for C. trachomatis DNA by PCR in a first-void urine sample. Study parameters were serology, PCR results, clinical diagnoses, treatments, pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcome. As controls, age-matched and spontaneously pregnant women were also tested with serology. 

RESULTS: The prevalence of IgG antibodies was 24.2, 20.1 and 15.6% among infertile women, infertile men and control women respectively. The prevalence of C. trachomatis DNA was 6.8 and 7.1% among tested women and men respectively. The presence of C. trachomatis IgG antibodies in women was related to tubal factor infertility (TFI) (P = 0.002). Decreased pregnancy rates were seen in couples where the man was IgG(+) (P = 0.005) with no relationship to TFI. Among women who achieved pregnancy, there was no difference in pregnancy outcome between IgG(+) or negative couples. 

CONCLUSIONS: C. trachomatis IgG antibodies in the man of the infertile couple was related to decreased pregnancy rates and to the presence of IgG antibodies in the woman. There was a high prevalence of asymptomatic persistent infections among infertile couples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 19, no 5, 1121-1126 p.
Keyword [en]
Chlamydia trachomatis, infertility, PCR, pregnancy outcome, serology
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-10383DOI: 10.1093/humrep/deh155ISI: 000221143000019PubMedID: 15121732OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-10383DiVA: diva2:150054
Available from: 2008-09-02 Created: 2008-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chlamydia trachomatis as a risk factor for infertility in women and men, and ovarian tumor development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlamydia trachomatis as a risk factor for infertility in women and men, and ovarian tumor development
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis in women is a risk factor for tubal factor infertility and extra uterine pregnancies, but the impact of a C. trachomatis infection on male fertility is unclear. It is also hypothesized that persistent infection with C. trachomatis, or other microorganisms, might initiate/promote ovarian tumor development. The aims of the thesis were to study whether C. trachomatis serum antibodies in women and men had an impact on infertility diagnoses, semen characteristics, pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes; furthermore, to explore associations of C. trachomatis, and Mycoplasma genitalium, plasma antibodies with epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors, as well as the presence of C. trachomatis bacteria, and other microorganisms, in ovarian tissues.

Materials and methods: Papers I and II: 244/226 infertile couples were tested for serum C. trachomatis IgG, IgA, IgM and chlamydial Heat Shock Protein 60 (cHSP60) IgG antibodies. C. trachomatis IgG positive couples were also tested for C. trachomatis DNA in a urine sample. The follow-up period was 14-54 months. 244 spontaneously pregnant women were also tested for serum C. trachomatis IgG antibodies. Papers III and IV: Plasma samples from 291 women with epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumors and benign conditions, and plasma samples from 271 healthy controls, were analyzed for C. trachomatis IgG, IgA and cHSP60-1 IgG and M. genitalium IgG antibodies. Ovarian tissues from 186 women with benign ovaries, borderline ovarian tumors and epithelial ovarian cancer, as well as tissues from the contra lateral ovary in 126 women, were analyzed for the presence of C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HPV and the polyoma viruses BKV and JCV with nucleic acid amplification tests.

Results: Papers I and II: The prevalence of C. trachomatis IgG antibodies was higher among infertile than fertile women, and there were 9 couples with ongoing C. trachomatis infections. In men, C. trachomatis IgG and IgA antibodies were associated with a reduced likelihood to achieve pregnancy for the couple, as well as lower sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility and vitality, increased teratozoospermia index and the occurrence of leukocytes. C. trachomatis IgG and cHSP60 IgG antibodies in infertile women were associated with tubal factor infertility, but not with reduced pregnancy rates or outcomes. Paper III: cHSP60-1 IgG antibodies were associated with ovarian cancer belonging to the postulated type II pathogenetic pathway when plasma samples obtained more than one year prior to diagnosis were analyzed. M. genitalium IgG antibodies were associated with borderline ovarian tumors; however a statistical type 1 error cannot be excluded. Paper IV: None of the microorganisms studied were found in the ovarian tissue samples.

Conclusions: C. trachomatis IgG and IgA antibodies in the man substantially decreases the chances of the infertile couple to achieve pregnancy, and are associated with subtle negative changes in semen characteristics. C. trachomatis IgG and cHSP60 IgG antibodies in the woman are risk factors for tubal factor infertility. Prospective plasma cHSP60-1 IgG antibodies are associated with type II ovarian carcinomas, but C. trachomatis bacteria, or the other microorganisms studied, could not be detected in benign, borderline or malignant ovarian tissues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Klinisk vetenskap, 2009. 74 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1255
Keyword
antibodies, borderline tumors, Chlamydia trachomatis, cHSP60, DNA, infertility, ovarian cancer, pregnancy rate, RNA, semen characteristics
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22239 (URN)978-91-7264-759-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-05-29, Sal B, By 1D, 9 tr., Tandläkarhögskolan, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-04 Created: 2009-04-30 Last updated: 2011-03-30Bibliographically approved
2. Prevention of Chlamydia trachomatis infections
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevention of Chlamydia trachomatis infections
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Urogenital chlamydia infection, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Sweden. In 2008 it was estimated by WHO that there were 105.7 million new cases of CT worldwide, an increase by 4.2 million cases (4.1%) compared to 2005. If untreated, CT infections can progress to serious reproductive health problems, especially in women. These complications include subfertility/infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain. The CT infection is often asymptomatic and reliable diagnostic methods and contact tracing are important tools for identifying infected individuals. CT infection is classified in the Swedish Communicable Diseases Act as a serious disease; consequently, written reporting and contact tracing are compulsory. Previous or ongoing CT infection is not uncommon in infertile couples, especially in women with tubal factor infertility (TFI). We have tested 244 infertile couples for CT antibodies, and CT IgG positive couples were tested for CT DNA in urine. The prevalence of CT antibodies was higher in infertile men and women, and ongoing CT infection was common. Our results support a role of CT in infertility and underscore the importance of prevention of CT infection. Contact tracing was studied during using questionnaires. A total of 544 questionnaires was sent to tracers in a Swedish county and 534 (98%) were completed. Centralized contact tracing performed by experienced tracers is effective; on average 65% of sexual contacts found by contact tracing are CT-infected. Our data show that it is worthwhile to extend the tracing period beyond 6 months as 30% of reported sexual contacts between months 7-12 were CT-infected. Contact tracing may be performed face-to-face at the clinic or by telephone. Because of the severe consequences of CT infection there is a need for useful methods for both primary and secondary prevention of CT and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). An important sub-population for CT/STI-prevention is the “core group”, i.e. a subpopulation with high incidence of STIs combined with risky sexual behaviours. This subpopulation contributes particularly to the spread of STIs in the population. Therefore, we have developed and evaluated a brief standardised but flexible manual-based single-session intervention based on motivational interviewing (MI) for the reduction of high risk sexual behaviour. Women (n=105) and men (n=119) at high risk of contracting CT infection were randomly eighter offered brief MI counselling or standard care. Our findings support the effectiveness of brief MI-based counselling in reducing high-risk sexual behaviour and incident CT infection in women (p<0.01) but not in men. Our results suggest that gender aspects need to be considered and that men and women should be treated differently for achieving maximal risk-reduction. Whereas it might be sufficient to include information and motivation when performing risk-reducing counselling on women, counsellors may also add other components, such as behavioural skills and booster sessions, when counselling is performed on men.

Abstract [sv]

Klamydiainfektion orsakas av Chlamydia trachomatis och är den vanligaste sexuellt överförda bakterieinfektionen. WHO har uppskattat att det år 2008 var 105,7 miljoner nya fall av klamydia i världen, en ökning med 4,2 miljoner fall (4,1 %) jämfört med år 2005. Klamydiainfektion är ett folkhälsoproblem och klassificeras i den svenska smittskyddslagen som en allmänfarlig sjukdom varför det är obligatoriskt att smittspåra och göra en skriftlig anmälan till smittskyddsläkaren och Smittskyddsinstitutet.

Klamydiainfektionen ger oftast inga symtom och tillförlitliga diagnostiska metoder och smittspårning är viktiga ”redskap” för att hitta smittade personer. Om klamydiainfektionen inte behandlas kan den leda till allvarliga hälsoproblem, speciellt hos kvinnor. Bland komplikationer efter klamydiainfektion ingår ofrivillig barnlöshet, utomkvedshavandeskap och kronisk buksmärta. Tecken på tidigare eller pågående klamydiainfektion är vanliga hos ofrivilligt barnlösa par, speciellt hos kvinnor med skadade äggledare som orsak till barnlösheten. Våra resultat ger stöd för betydelsen av klamydia vid ofrivillig barnlöshet och understryker vikten av förebyggande åtgärder mot klamydia samt klamydiaprovtagning av både män och kvinnor vid utredning av ofrivillig barnlöshet.

Centraliserad klamydiasmittspårning utförd av erfarna smittspårare är effektiv och i genomsnitt är 65 % av spårade sexuella kontakter klamydiasmittade. Våra data visar att det lönar sig att förlänga smittspårningsperioden från 6 till 12 månader eftersom betydligt fler klamydiasmittade kontakter då hittas. Den så kallade ”Västerbottensmodellen” med en smittspårningsperiod på 12 månader rekommenderas nu av Socialstyrelsen. Kontaktspårning kan utföras antingen på mottagningen eller per telefon.

På grund av risk för allvarliga konsekvenser av klamydia finns det behov av metoder för att förebygga klamydiasmitta. En viktig grupp för prevention är den så kallade ”kärngruppen", alltså de personer som har en hög förekomst av klamydia och andra sexuellt överförda infektioner i kombination med sexuellt riskbeteende. Denna grupp bidrar särskilt till spridningen av sexuellt överförda infektioner bland befolkningen. Därför har vi utvecklat och utvärderat en kort samtalsmetod som bygger på metoden motiverande samtal (MI, motivational interviewing) för att minska sexuellt risktagande. Våra fynd visar att kort MI-baserad rådgivning för att minska sexuellt riskbeteende och klamydiainfektion fungerar bra på kvinnor men inte lika bra på män. Resultaten tyder på att genusaspekter måste beaktas och att kvinnor och män ska behandlas på olika sätt för att uppnå maximal riskminskning. Det kan vara tillräckligt att fokusera på information och motivation vid rådgivning av kvinnor men för rådgivning av män kan man behöva komplettera med beteendemässiga färdigheter och/eller upprepad MI-baserad rådgivning för att nå god effekt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2013. 73 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1607
Keyword
Chlamydia trachomatis, cell culture, infertility, contact tracing, motivational interviewing, prevention
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-84043 (URN)978-91-7459-747-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-01-10, Hörsal Betula, byggnad 6M, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-12-20 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2015-04-29Bibliographically approved

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