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Uptake and Biotransformation of Structurally-Diverse Brominated Flame Retardants in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) after Dietary Exposure
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
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2009 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 28, no 5, 1035-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed a diet containing a mixture of 11 structurally diverse brominated flame retardants (BFRs) at nominal concentrations of either 1 or 100 nmol/g for up to 42 d, followed by an elimination period of 14 d. Uptake rates and elimination constants for five of the BFRs were calculated from measurements of their concentrations in the male fish during the exposure and elimination phases. Observed uptake efficiencies were highest for 2,4,4′-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28) and 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH) and were lowest for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209). Estimated half-lives for TBECH and 2,4,6-tribromophenol were short (<2 d). Four BFR metabolites were identified in the fish: 2,2′,3,4′,5′,6-Hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 149), 2,2′,4,4′,5,6′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 154), 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, and 1,2,4,5-hexabromobenzene. These metabolites were still present in the zebrafish after the 14-d elimination period. No relationship between the BFR concentrations in the zebrafish and their log octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) values was found. Generally, low tendencies to bioaccumulate were observed for perbrominated and hydroxylated compounds. The observed accumulation of BFR metabolites in fish, however, shows that low concentration of a BFR does not provide, in isolation, a sound indication that the BFR poses low risks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 28, no 5, 1035-42 p.
Keyword [en]
Brominated flame retardants, Fish, Accumulation, Elimination, Metabolites
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-11248DOI: doi:10.1897/08-302.1OAI: diva2:150919
Available from: 2009-01-12 Created: 2009-01-12 Last updated: 2010-01-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of selected brominated flame retardants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of selected brominated flame retardants
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are chemicals used in e.g. electronic equipment, textiles and plastics for the prevention of fire. Over recent decades, concern has been raised regarding some heavily used BFRs, since the levels in the environment have been increasing. In the present thesis, persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) properties were studied for a structurally varied set of BFRs selected to represent more than 60 organic BFRs. The studied BFRs include: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE  183), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A 2-hydroxyethyl ether (TBBPA OHEE), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (246BrPh), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), and hexabromobenzene (HxBrBz).

It is likely that soil will act as a sink for BFRs. Therefore, studies of BFRs were performed on persistence in soil, and on bioaccumulation from soil in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Large variation in the biodegradability in soil among the tested BFRs was observed. The studied brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE 28 and BDE 209) were very persistent under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, while 246BrPh and TBECH degraded quickly in both aerobic and anaerobic soil. The bioaccumulation in earthworm from soil was high for HxBrBz, TBECH and for tested brominated diphenyl ethers with 4-6 bromine atoms (BDE 47, BDE 99, and BDE 153). Bioaccumulation was also studied in zebrafish after dietary exposure to a mixture of BFRs. It was shown that several metabolites were formed and retained in zebrafish, which highlights the importance of also searching for and identifying persistent degradation products. Maternal transfer was shown for all BFRs present in the female zebrafish. This shows that zebrafish young (fry) are exposed to these BFRs at approximately the same concentrations as female zebrafish during the early-life stages, when fish are usually most sensitive to organic contaminants. Toxicity of individual BFRs and a BFR mixture was studied in Nitocra spinipes using a silica gel-based system. Highest toxicities were observed for BDE 28, TBBPA, and TBBPA OHEE. In the mixture toxicity study, simultaneous exposure to low concentrations (individually causing no significant effect) of six BFRs significantly affected the survival of Nitocra spinipes. The results from the PBT studies presented in the thesis and literature data were compared with the criteria for PBT classification, as set in the European REACH legislation. Further, some BFRs with physico-chemical properties similar to those of identified PBTs were suggested to be prioritized for future PBT testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Print & Media, 2009. 57 p.
persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, biodegradation, biotransformation, PBT, read across, soil, earthworm, zebrafish, copepod, BFRs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, hexabromobenzene, 2, 4, 6-tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, 2-hydroxyethyl ether, 1, 2-dibromo-4-(1, 2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane
National Category
Environmental Sciences
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22528 (URN)978-91-7264-805-0 (ISBN)
Kemiska institutionen, 90187, Umeå
Public defence
2009-06-05, MA121, MIT-huset, Umeå Universistet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-05-15 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2014-03-10Bibliographically approved

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Rattfelt Nyholm, JennyHaglund, PeterAndersson, Patrik
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