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The uptake of peer-based intervention in the writing classroom
Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
2005 (English)In: Effective learning and teaching of writing / [ed] Gert Rijlaarsdam, Huub van den Bergh, Michel Couzijn, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers , 2005, 259-274 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter presents and discusses a method, peer-based intervention (PBI), in which conscious reflection of key-stroke logged writing sessions is used to improve written composition. Multiple writing opportunities are used together with discussion and observation of the writer’s own and a peer’s text. The method entails the theoretical assumption that the release of cognitive resources in working memory helps writers to focus the attention towards deeper structures of the text under construction as well as towards the writing process per se and thus assist in raising writers’ metacognitive awareness of writing. The chapter reports on a study of Swedish 13-year-olds composing descriptive and argumentative texts in their first language (L1), with and without PBI. The texts were graded and all revisions undertaken during the writing process were analysed according to their impact on the text product. Further, text quality and frequency of revisions were tested statistically in order to delimit the impact of the PBI treatment. The results indicate that the method was generally successful for low L1 ability writers, while high L1 ability writers benefited from the treatment in the argumentative assignments. The treatment further raised writers’ awareness of contents features involved in writing by increased frequency of text-based revisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers , 2005. 259-274 p.
, Studies in writing, ISSN 1572-6304 ; 14
Keyword [en]
L1 Swedish, keystroke logging, revision, PBI, noticing, metacognitive awareness, working memory, social interaction, input at the right level, ‘zone of proximal developmen'
National Category
Educational Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-11624DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-2739-0_18ISBN: 1-4020-2724-9OAI: diva2:151295
Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Writing and revising: Didactic and Methodological Implications of Keystroke Logging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Writing and revising: Didactic and Methodological Implications of Keystroke Logging
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Keystroke logging records keyboard activity during writing. Time and position of all keystrokes are stored in a log file, which facilitates detailed analysis of all pauses, revisions and movements undertaken during writing. Keystroke logging further includes a replay function, which can be used as a tool for reflection and analysis of the writing process. During writing, writers continuously plan, transcribe, read, and revise in order to create a text that meets with their goals and intentions for the text. These activities both interact and trigger one another.

This thesis includes studies in which keystroke recordings are used as bases for visualisation of and reflection on the cognitive processes that underlie writing. The keystroke logging methodology is coupled with Geographical information systems (GIS) and stimulated recall in order to enhance the understanding of keystroke logged data as representations of interacting cognitive activities during writing. Particular attention is paid to writing revision and a taxonomy for analysis of on-line revision is proposed. In the taxonomy, revisions made at the point of inscription are introduced as ‘pre-contextual’ revisions, and highlighted as potential windows on cognitive processing during transcription. The function of pre-contextual revisions as revisions of form and concepts was ascertained in an empirical study, which also showed that 13-year-old writers revised more form and concepts at the point of inscription when they wrote in English as a foreign language (EFL) than in Swedish as a first language (L1).

In this thesis, a learning method, Peer-based intervention (PBI), is introduced and examined through case studies and statistical analysis. PBI is based on theories about cognitive capacity, noticing, individual-based learning and social interaction. In PBI, the keystroke-logging replay facility is used as a tool for reflection on and discussion of keystroke logged data, i.e. representations of cognitive processes active during writing. In the studies presented in this thesis, teen-aged and adult writers’ texts, written before and after PBI, were analysed according to text quality and revision. Descriptive and argumentative texts in both L1 and EFL were included in the studies. The results showed that PBI raised adult and teen-aged writers’ awareness of linguistic and extra-linguistic features, and that the effect varied across levels of learner ability, text type and language.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Moderna språk, Umeå universitet, 2005. 38 p.
Skrifter från moderna språk, ISSN 1650-304X ; 18
English language, writing, revision, keystroke logging, GIS, stimulated recall, precontextual revision, writing development, Peer-based intervention, language awareness, noticing, EFL, L1 Swedish, reflection, Engelska
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-534 (URN)91-7305-873-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-05-28, 10:00
Available from: 2005-05-10 Created: 2005-05-10 Last updated: 2015-01-16Bibliographically approved

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Lindgren, Eva
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Department of Interactive Media and LearningDepartment of language studies
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