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Emission of PCDD/F, PCB, and HCB from combustion of firewood and pellets in residential stoves and boilers
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2006 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, no 16, 4968-4975 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To assess potential emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from residential combustion of biofuels, experiments were performed in which various types of pellets and firewood were combusted in four types of stoves and boilers, with both full and reduced rates of air supply. Intermittent combustion of wood pellets resulted in emissions of 11 ng-(WHO-TEQ)/kg combusted fuel (dry weight). A modern, environmentally certified boiler yielded somewhat lower emissions of PCCD/F and PCB than a wood stove. Both gave <0.1 ng(WHO-TEQ)/m3n (1.3-6.5 ng(WHO-TEQ)/kg) and considerably lower emissions than an old boiler (7.0-13 ng(WHO-TEQ)/kg). No positive effect on emissions could be observed in full air combustion (simulating the use of a heat storage tank) compared to combustion with reduced air. Two of the wood combustion experiments included paper and plastic waste fuels. Chlorine-containing plastic waste gave rise to high emissions: ca. 310 ng(WHO-TEQ)/ kg over the whole combustion cycle. The homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs show characteristic differences between ashes and flue gas from combustions with different levels of air supply. These differences do not, however, seem to have any correlation to the relative amount of toxic congeners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2006. Vol. 40, no 16, 4968-4975 p.
Keyword [en]
air pollutants, benzofurans, chlorine, environmental monitoring, environmental pollutants, fires, hexachlorobenzene, particle size, plastics, polychlorinated biphenyls, soil pollutants, temperature, tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, wood
National Category
Environmental Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-11755DOI: 10.1021/es0524189ISI: 000239684900029PubMedID: 16955894OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-11755DiVA: diva2:151426
Available from: 2007-03-08 Created: 2007-03-08 Last updated: 2017-03-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dioxin emissions from small-scale combustion of bio-fuel and household waste
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dioxin emissions from small-scale combustion of bio-fuel and household waste
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling behandlar rökgasutsläpp av persistenta organiska föroreningar, framförallt dioxiner, vid förbränning av fasta biobränslen och torrt hushållsavfall i relativt små anläggningar (5-600 kW) utan avancerad rökgasreningsteknik.

Samförbränning av avfall och biobränsle i effektiva mindre biobränslepannor testades som en alternativ strategi till den vanligen förekommande storskaliga hanteringen och förbränningen fast hushållsavfall. Medan storskalig förbränning av avfall ger investeringsmässiga fördelar med rökgasreningsteknik etc. kan små lokala anläggningar ha transportmässiga fördelar och möjligheter till utnyttjande av lokala biobränsletillgångar. Källsorterat, torrt, brännbart hushållsavfall insamlades från hushåll i glesbygd och samförbrändes i brikettform med energigräset rörflen i 150-600 kW biobränslepannor. Endast undantagsvis understeg dioxinemissionerna gällande gränsvärden för avfallsförbränning och nivåerna av väteklorid i rökgas översteg gränsvärdena flerfaldigt. Det bedömdes att någon form av extra rökgasrening är nödvändig för att säkerställa nivågränserna. Dioxiner hittades också i det eldade avfallet, framförallt i textilfraktionen. Dioxinmängderna i rökgaserna var oftast lägre än i det ingående bränslet.

Intermittent pelletseldning gav oväntat höga utsläpp av dioxiner med en emissionsfaktor på 28 ng(WHO-TEQ)/kg. Vedeldning i en modern miljömärkt villapanna gav betydligt lägre utsläpp av dioxiner än eldning i en gammal kombipanna och eldning med full lufttillförsel, som kan jämföras med användning av ackumulatortank, resulterade i upp till 90% minskning av utsläpp av dioxiner jämfört med eldning med reducerat lufttillskott (’pyreldning’). Eldning av plastavfall i en vedpanna gav höga utsläpp av dioxiner.

Okontrollerad förbränning av trädgårdsavfall och hushålls avfall i tunna eller som öppen eld ’bakgårdsbränning’, gav stora variationer i utsläppsnivåer som bara delvis kunde kopplas till avfallsinnehåll. Resultaten visar att denna typ av förbränning kan vara en betydande källa till dioxiner i miljön, och ett emissionsfaktorintervall på 4-72 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg föreslås för bedömningar av utsläpp från backgårdsbränning av avfall med låga eller måttliga klorhalter.

En sammanfattande slutsats av alla försök är att dioxin utsläpp beror på komplicerade samband mellan bränsleinnehåll och förbränningsbetingelser. Bränslen med mycket höga klorhalter av ger oftast högre utsläpp av dioxiner än bränslen med låga klorhalter medan små skillnader döljs av variationer i förbränningsbetingelser.

Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with emissions of persistent organic pollutants, primarily dioxins, from the combustion of solid biofuels and dry combustible household waste in relatively small facilities, 5-600 kW, without advanced air pollution controls.

Co-combustion of waste and biofuel in effective small boilers was tested as an alternative to prevailing large-scale management and combustion strategies for handling municipal solid waste. This approach includes no advanced air pollution control systems, but offers two advantages: limiting transport and providing scope to use local biofuel resources. Source-sorted, dry, combustible household waste was collected from households in a sparsely populated area and co-combusted as briquettes together with reed canary-grass in 150-600 kW biofuel boilers. Most trials showed difficulties to meet regulative limits for the emissions of dioxins valid for incineration of MSW and the regulated limits for emissions of hydrochloric acid were exceeded manifold. It was concluded that additional flue-gas cleaning will be needed to ensure that emissions are sufficiently low. Dioxins were also found in the waste, especially in the textile fraction. The mass of dioxins in the flue-gas emissions was generally lower than the mass in the fuel input.

Intermittent combustion of wood pellets in a residential boiler resulted in an unexpectedly high dioxin emissions factor of 28 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg fuel. Combustion of wood in a modern environmentally certified boiler yielded considerably lower dioxin emissions than combustion in an old boiler, and combustion with a full air supply, i.e. with use of heat storage tank, resulted in up to 90% reductions in dioxin emission factors compared to combustion with reduced air supply. Combustion of plastic waste in a residential wood boiler resulted in high emissions of dioxins.

Tests of uncontrolled combustion of garden and household waste in barrels or open fires, ‘backyard burnings’, resulted in emissions with large variations that could only be partly correlated to the waste constituents. The results imply that this may be an important source of dioxins in the environment and an emission factor range of 4-72 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg is suggested for estimating emissions from backyard burnings of lightly and moderately chlorine-contaminated waste.

A summarized conclusion from all of the experiments is that predicting emission levels from waste contents is not straightforward (except that fuels with very high chlorine levels will usually result in high levels of dioxins in flue-gas emissions). Moderate differences in chlorine levels will usually be masked by the effect of variations in combustion conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kemi, 2005. 54 p.
Keyword
Source-sorted waste, Household waste, Textile, Biofuel, Firewood, Pellets, Combustion, Wood boiler, Pellet boiler, Backyard burning, Garden waste, PCDD/F, dioxin, PCB, Emission factor, Källsorterat avfall, Hushållsavfall, Textil, Biobränsle, Ved, Pellets, Förbränning, Vedpanna, Pelletpanna, Trädgårdsavfall, PCDD/F, dioxin, PCB, Emissionsfaktor
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-593 (URN)91-7305-956-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-10-14, KB3B1, KBC-huset, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-09-21 Created: 2005-09-21 Last updated: 2017-03-24Bibliographically approved

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Marklund, Stellan

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