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Interference-free coulometric titration of water in lithium bis(oxalato)borate using Karl Fischer reagents based on N-methylformamide
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
2006 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 69, no 1, 276-280 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A non-alcoholic coulometric reagent based on N-methylformamide (NMF) was shown to eliminate the severe interference effect caused by the alcohol component of the conventional Karl Fischer (KF) reagent on the battery electrolyte lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB). For sample amounts up to 240 μg of water, the stoichiometry of the KF reaction deviated only slightly from the ideal 1:1 ratio for the best reagent composition. Both solid and dissolved (in acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate) LiBOB were titrated successfully using a Metrohm 756 KF Coulometer with a diaphragm cell. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.5–1 μg of water using 100 ml of reagent in this system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 69, no 1, 276-280 p.
Keyword [en]
N-Methylformamide; Non-alcoholic KF reagent; Lithium bis(oxalato)borate; Water determination
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-12418DOI: doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2005.10.004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-12418DiVA: diva2:152089
Available from: 2007-04-04 Created: 2007-04-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. New approaches to moisture determination in complex matrices based on the Karl Fischer Reaction in methanolic and non-alcoholic media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New approaches to moisture determination in complex matrices based on the Karl Fischer Reaction in methanolic and non-alcoholic media
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Vattenhaltsbestämning är av stor vikt i många sammanhang. T.ex. kan vattenhalten påverka utbytet av en kemisk syntes, eller ha negativ inverkan på hållbarheten av läkemedel och livsmedel.

Standardmetoden för vattenhaltsbestämning är Karl Fischer-titrering, baserad på antingen volymetri eller coulometri. I den här avhandlingen presenteras nya infallsvinklar för bestämning av mycket låga halter vatten i komplexa provmatriser, som t.ex. tekniska oljor och substanser som interfererar med alkoholbaserade Karl Fischer-reagens.

Vattnet avskiljs ofta från oljematrisen före titrering genom förångning. I samband med framtagningen av nya referensmaterial för vatten i olja ifrågasattes förångningsteknikernas effektivitet av National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST menade att en fraktion av vattnet bands hårt i oljefasen och att det inte kunde frigöras och detekteras annat än med en modifierad volymetrisk metod där reagenset innehöll minst 65% kloroform. I den här avhandlingen presenteras en alternativ metod som uppfyller det ställda kravet för en fullständig upplösning av oljefasen. Med denna metod visas att det inte finns någon anledning att ifrågasätta förångningsteknikernas effektivitet och att den modifierade metoden som NIST använder ger systematiskt för höga resultat.

Fördelar som enklare handhavande, kortare konditioneringstider och att endast ett reagens behövs har gjort att diafragmafri coulometri har blivit allt mer populär. Spårhaltsbestämning med denna teknik ställer dock speciellt höga krav på reagensen eftersom strömtätheten vid katoden är låg. Med anledning av detta testades olika typer av kommersiella reagensblandningar för bestämning av små vattenmängder och kritiska parametrar identifierades. Dekanol visade sig ha en gynnsam effekt på katodreaktionen i reagens modifierade med xylen enligt standardmetodbeskrivningen för bestämning av vatten i oljor.

För provtyper som inte går att analysera med alkoholbaserade reagenser presenteras en ny typ baserad på N-metylformamid. Med ett sådant reagens bestämdes vattenhalten i ett reaktivt salt som används i litiumjonbatterier. Liknande alkoholfria reagens undersöktes mer utförligt i en djupare studie som även inkluderade formamid och dimetylformamid. För- och nackdelar med dessa alternativa lösningsmedel diskuteras och möjliga reaktionsförlopp föreslås. Det visade sig att läget på jämvikten mellan svaveldioxid och vätesulfit är en avgörande faktor för att förklara den stora skillnaden i reaktionshastighet i dessa lösningsmedel.

Abstract [en]

Moisture determination is of great importance in the production and use of many substances. For example, the moisture content can affect the efficiency of a chemical reaction or determine the shelf life of pharmaceuticals or foods. The standard method for moisture determination is Karl Fischer (KF) titration, based on either volumetry or coulometry. This thesis concerns new approaches to trace determination in complex sample matrices and is focused on oils and substances that interfere with alcoholic KF reagents.

Moisture is frequently separated from oil matrices before titration by means of evaporation techniques. In connection with the preparation of new reference materials for moisture in oil, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) questioned the efficiency of such evaporation techniques. NIST claimed that some of the moisture was sequestered in the oil phase and that it could only be released and detected by using a modified volumetric KF method with a reagent containing at least 65% chloroform. In this thesis, an alternative KF method that meets the proposed requirement for a complete dissolution of the oil sample is presented. With this method it is shown that there is no reason to question the efficiency of the evaporation techniques and that the criticized volumetric method used by NIST is biased high.

Ever since its introduction diaphragm-free coulometry has gained popularity due to its ease of use, with a single reagent and short conditioning times. Trace determination with this technique sets great demands on the reagent due to the resulting low current densities at the generator cathode. The performance of several commercial reagents is evaluated under such unfavorable conditions and critical titration parameters are identified. It is also shown that decanol has a favorable effect on the cathode process when using reagents modified with xylene according to standard methods for moisture determination in oils.

For samples that are incompatible with the alcohol component in ordinary KF reagent a new reagent based on N-methylformamide is presented. It is shown that is works well for determinations of moisture in a conductive salt used in lithium-ion batteries. The concept of alcohol-free KF reagents is taken a step further in a systematic investigation, also including formamide and dimethylformamide. Advantages and disadvantages with these solvents are discussed and possible reaction paths are surveyed. It is shown that the position of the sulfur dioxide/hydrogen sulfite equilibrium is the main explanation for the large differences in the KF reaction rates in these solvents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kemi, 2008. 48 p.
Keyword
Karl Fischer titration, non-alcoholic reagent, trace moisture determination.
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1918 (URN)978-91-7264-687-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-12-10, KB3A9, KBC, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2009-06-24Bibliographically approved

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