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On the semi-quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soil by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
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2006 (English)In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 555, no 1, 107-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of environmental concern, for instance when found in contaminated soils at sites where industrial activities have occurred. For efficient screening of such soils, the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, the PAH RISc® soil test, can be used. However, the site-specific performance may vary due to differences in soil properties and contamination profiles. Hence, in this study we have examined various contributing factors to the total ELISA measurements uncertainties. These factors include contributions from co-extracted (non-target) compounds, the extraction efficiency and differences in cross-reactivity among the target analytes. Reference values were obtained through pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. The results showed that the ELISA does not seem to respond to non-target compounds in the soil extracts to any large extent. Furthermore, high molecular weight PAHs were found to be more efficiently extracted with PLE than with methanol agitation, which is used for ELISA. If this, and the cross-reactivity of the individual PAHs, were taken into consideration, the ELISA and GC–MS results were in good agreement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2006. Vol. 555, no 1, 107-113 p.
Keyword [en]
Immunoassay; ELISA; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Soil; Environmental analysis; Cross-reactivity
National Category
Chemical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-12508DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2005.08.051OAI: diva2:152179
Available from: 2007-04-10 Created: 2007-04-10 Last updated: 2013-09-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Rapid sample preparation and bioanalytical techniques for efficient screening of organic pollutants in the environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid sample preparation and bioanalytical techniques for efficient screening of organic pollutants in the environment
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Large numbers of samples often need to be prepared and analysed in surveys of organic pollutants in the environment, but while the methods commonly used in such surveys can provide abundant detail they are generally costly, time-consuming and require large amounts of resources, so there is a need for simpler techniques. The work underlying this thesis assessed the potential utility of more convenient sample preparation and bioanalytical techniques for rapidly screening various environmental matrices that could be useful complements to higher resolution methods.

Initially, the utility of a simplified extraction technique followed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in authentic (i.e. unspiked) contaminated soils was explored. The results showed that there are relationships between the structure and cross-reactivity among compounds that often co-occur with target PAHs. However, their potential contribution to deviations between estimates of total PAH contents of soils obtained using ELISA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based reference methods were limited. Instead, the cross-reactivity of target PAHs and the failure to extract all of the PAHs prior to the ELISA determinations were the main reasons for these deviations.

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected in food and feed matrices, as well as in authentic contaminated soils using different bioanalytical techniques – ELISA and two cell-based bioassays: CAFLUX and CALUX (chemically activated fluorescent/luciferase gene expression) assays. In addition, enhanced sample preparation techniques based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were developed. ASE with integrated carbon fractionation (ASE-C) in combination with CAFLUX produced estimates of PCDD and PCDF contents in fish oil and fish meal that agreed well with results obtained using reference methods. Furthermore, results from ELISA and GC-high resolution MS analyses of extracts of PCDD- and PCDF-contaminated soil samples obtained using an adjusted ASE-C technique were strongly correlated.

Finally, the thesis reports the first experiments in which the results of CAFLUX, CALUX, and ELISA determinations of PCDDs and PCDFs in extracts of authentic contaminated soil samples were evaluated and compared to those obtained using a reference method. All of the bioanalytical techniques were found to be sufficiently sensitive, selective, and accurate for use in screening in compliance with soil quality assessment criteria. Overall, the improved sample preparation and bioanalytical techniques examined proved to be useful potential complements to conventional methods, enhancing the analytical framework for PAHs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. However, further validation has to be undertaken before they are applied on a large-scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kemi, 2006. 50 p.
accelerated solvent extraction, CAFLUX, food, immunoassay, PAH, PCDD, PCDF, pressurized liquid extraction, soil, CALUX, cell-based bioassay, chemically activated fluorescent gene expression, chemically activated luciferase gene expression, dioxin, ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, feed
National Category
Environmental Sciences
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-842 (URN)91-7264-109-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-09-22, KB3B1, KBC, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2006-09-01 Created: 2006-09-01 Last updated: 2009-12-07Bibliographically approved

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