Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Bone gained from physical activity and lost through detraining: a longitudinal study in young males.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
2005 (English)In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 16, no 7, 835-841 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of training and detraining on bone mineral density of both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bone in a cohort of young males who participated in ice hockey training. Forty-three healthy adolescent ice hockey players (16.7+/-0.6 years) training for a mean of 9.7+/-2.4 h/week and 25 control subjects (16.8+/-0.3 years) training for 2.1+/-2.7 h/week, were included in this longitudinal study. Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) of the arms, the dominant and non-dominant humerus, dominant and non-dominant femur, and the right femoral neck, total hip, and bone area of the femur, humerus and hip were measured at baseline and again after 30 and 70 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. From baseline to the first follow-up, athletes gained significantly more BMD in the femoral neck (0.07 versus 0.03 g/cm2) and arms (0.09 versus 0.06 g/cm2) compared with the controls (P = 0.04 for both). Between the first and the second follow-up, 21 ice hockey players stopped their active sports career. These men lost significantly more BMD at the femoral neck (-0.02 versus -0.10 g/cm2, P < 0.001), total hip (-0.05 versus -0.09, P = 0.04), dominant (0.02 versus -0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.009) and non-dominant humerus (0.03 versus -0.01 g/cm2, P = 0.03) than the still active ice hockey players (n = 22). At the second follow-up examination, at 22 years of age, the former ice hockey players still had significantly higher BMD at the non-dominant humerus than the controls (P < 0.01). During the total study period, the still active athletes (n = 22) gained significantly more BMD compared with the controls at the femoral neck (0.09 g/cm2; P = 0.008), total hip (0.05 g/cm2, P = 0.04) and arms (0.07 g/cm2; P = 0.01). No differences were seen in bone areas when comparing the different groups. In conclusion, training associated with ice hockey is related to continuous accumulation of BMD after puberty in males. Reduced activity is followed by BMD loss within 3 years of cessation of sports career at predominantly weight-bearing sites. The effects are confined to bone density and not bone size.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 16, no 7, 835-841 p.
Keyword [en]
Adolescent, Analysis of Variance, Bone Density/*physiology, Case-Control Studies, Densitometry; X-Ray, Exercise/*physiology, Femur Neck/physiopathology, Humans, Humerus/physiopathology, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Pelvic Bones/physiopathology, Sports
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-13115DOI: 10.1007/s00198-004-1749-4PubMedID: 15517188OAI: diva2:152786
Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bone mass and physical activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone mass and physical activity
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]


Weak and osteoporotic bones in old age are an increasing cause of mortality and painful physical impairment of the elderly, especially in the western world. Bone mineral accrual during childhood and adolescence is thought to play a vital role in preventing osteoporosis. Identifying and optimizing the factors influencing peak bone mass is thus important for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures.

A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the potential effects of various types of weight-bearing physical activity on bone accretion in young males just out of puberty. The results from our subgroups of athletes consisting of badminton, ice hockey, and soccer players suggest that weight-bearing physical activity gives rise to regional specific bone response that is determined by the degree of impact of the activity in areas subject to mechanical loading (papers I–IV). In summary, the bone is sensitive to loading after puberty in males, and important bone mass gains can be achieved by proper amount and type of exercise.

Another aim of this thesis was to studythe effect of detraining on weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bone in a cohort of adolescent males who participated in ice hockey and soccer training. Our results indicate that exercise-induced bone mineral density benefits decline, predominantly in weight-bearing bones, after retirement from an active sports career (papers II–IV). High bone density stemming from physical loading might be at least partly preserved even by reduced physical activity at nonweight-bearing sites after about three years of reduced activity (III, IV).

A final aim was to follow prospectively the development of BMD during years of reduced activity in former male athletes, and evaluate whether exercise during adolescence could be associated with fewer fractures in old age. We found fewer fragility fractures in a cohort of 400 former athletes compared to in 800 age-matched controls. Thus, high bone density stemming from previous weight-bearing physical activity may reduce the risk of sustaining fragility fractures in the elderly.

Key words: physical activity, peak bone mineral density, males.

50 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 881
Medicine, physical activity, peak bone mineral density, males, fractures, Medicin
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-224 (URN)91-7305-618-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-04-23, Sal 9B, 9 tr, Tandläkarhögskolan, Norrlands Universitets Sjukhus, 901 85, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2004-03-31 Created: 2004-03-31 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Nordström, AnnaOlsson, TommyNordström, Peter
By organisation
MedicineSports MedicineGeriatric Medicine
In the same journal
Osteoporosis International
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 70 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link