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Association between the presence of bacterial 16S RNA in prostate specimens taken during transurethral resection of prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer (Sweden)
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
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2006 (English)In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 17, no 9, 1127-1133 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To study bacterial 16S RNA in archival prostate samples from 352 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and evaluate whether the presence of bacterial DNA was different in those who later developed prostate cancer (n = 171) and in the matched controls that did not progress to cancer (n = 181).

Methods: 16S DNA PCR followed by cloning and sequencing the positive samples.

Results: In 96/352 (27%) of the prostate tissue specimens 16S RNA were detected. Sequence analysis revealed Propionibacterium acnes as the predominant microorganism (23% of 16S RNA positive patients). The second most frequent isolate—Escherichia coli was found in 12 (12%) patients. The other isolates included Pseudomonas sp. (3 patients), Actinomyces sp. (2), Streptococcus mutans (1), Corynebacterium sp. (2),Nocardioides sp. (1), Rhodococcus sp. (1) Veillonella sp. (2). In P. acnes positive samples 62% exhibited severe histological inflammation versus 50% in the bacteria-negative group (p = 0.602). The presence of P. acnes in the prostate was associated with prostate cancer development (OR 2.17, 95% CI 0.77–6.95).

Conclusions: This study has revealed P. acnes as the most common bacteria in the prostate in BPH. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in contributing to the development of prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2006. Vol. 17, no 9, 1127-1133 p.
Keyword [en]
16S RNA, propionibacterium, prostate
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-13555DOI: 10.1007/s10552-006-0054-2OAI: diva2:153226
Available from: 2008-02-11 Created: 2008-02-11 Last updated: 2012-10-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The role of microorganisms in prostate cancer development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of microorganisms in prostate cancer development
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among Swedish men, but the aetiology of this disease is largely unknown. There is evidence for a linkage between chronic inflammation and prostate cancer. The mechanisms causing prostate inflammation and how this could promote tumour development and progression are however largely unknown. Chronic inflammatory infiltrates are common findings in prostate tissue samples and infection is proposed to be one possible cause for this inflammation. Inflammatory cells release free radicals, cytokines, and growth factors that facilitate increased cell proliferation, DNA damage, mutations, and angiogenesis. However, the present literature on the presence of microbes in prostate tissue and their possible linkage to inflammation and cancer development is limited. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to investigate if microorganisms are present in prostate tissue and to evaluate their role in inducing prostatitis and prostate epithelial neoplasia.

The presence of microorganisms (virus, bacteria and fungi) was studied in clinical prostate tissue samples to evaluate whether or not the occurrences of microorganisms were different in patients that later developed cancer compared with matched controls that did not. Viruses, bacteria and fungi were found in prostate tissues. Out of eight different viruses investigated, EBV and JC virus were detected, but there were no differences in occurrence in the case group compared to the control group. The fungus Candida albicans was present in a very small proportion of the prostate tissue samples. The predominant bacterium was Propionibacterium acnes and the second most prevalent was Escherichia coli. The presence of Propionibacterium acnes was associated with inflammation and subsequent prostate cancer development. Propionibacterium acnes was further evaluated for its capacity to induce an inflammatory response both in vitro and in vivo. Live Propionibacterium acnes induced a strong immune reaction in prostate epithelial cells in vitro with up-regulation of inflammatory genes and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Infection with Propionibacterium acnes in rat prostate resulted in a lobe specific inflammation with the most intense inflammation in the dorso-lateral prostate, lasting up to 3 months post-inoculation. Propionibacterium acnes inflammation was also associated with altered epithelial cell morphology, signs of DNA damage and increased cell proliferation.

Taken together, this thesis shows that different viruses and bacteria can be found in prostate tissue. Propionibacterium acnes, the most abundant among the bacteria detected and more prevalent in the cancer than in the control group, exhibits strong prostatitis promoting properties both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, Propionibacterium acnes can induce some of the epithelial changes known to occur during prostate neoplasia formation. This thesis therefore suggests that Propionibacterium acnes induced chronic prostatitis could promote prostate cancer development. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular interplay linking Propionibacterium acnes induced inflammation and the formation of a pre-neoplastic state that could evolve into prostate cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2012. 46 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1521
prostate cancer, aetiology, inflammation, Propionibacterium acnes
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-59987 (URN)978-91-7459-475-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-26, E04, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2012-10-05 Created: 2012-09-27 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved

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Alexeyev, OlegBergh, JohannaMarklund, IngridThellenberg Karlsson, CamillaBergh, AndersElgh, Fredrik
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