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High resolution crystal structures of piscine transthyretin reveal different binding modes for triiodothyronine and thyroxine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis (UCMP) (Faculty of Science and Technology). (Sauer-Eriksson)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis (UCMP) (Faculty of Science and Technology). (Sauer-Eriksson)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis (UCMP) (Faculty of Science and Technology). (Sauer-Eriksson)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis (UCMP) (Faculty of Science and Technology). (Sauer-Eriksson)
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2004 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 279, no 25, 26411-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transthyretin (TTR) is an extracellular transport protein involved in the distribution of thyroid hormones and vitamin A. So far, TTR has only been found in vertebrates, of which piscine TTR displays the lowest sequence identity with human TTR (47%). Human and piscine TTR bind both thyroid hormones 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)) and 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-l-thyronine (thyroxine, T(4)). Human TTR has higher affinity for T(4) than T(3), whereas the reverse holds for piscine TTR. X-ray structures of Sparus aurata (sea bream) TTR have been determined as the apo-protein at 1.75 A resolution and bound to ligands T(3) and T(4), both at 1.9 A resolution. The apo structure is similar to human TTR with structural changes only at beta-strand D. This strand forms an extended loop conformation similar to the one in chicken TTR. The piscine TTR.T(4) complex shows the T(4)-binding site to be similar but not identical to human TTR, whereas the TTR.T(3) complex shows the I3' halogen situated at the site normally occupied by the hydroxyl group of T(4). The significantly wider entrance of the hormone-binding channel in sea bream TTR, in combination with its narrower cavity, provides a structural explanation for the different binding affinities of human and piscine TTR to T(3) and T(4).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 279, no 25, 26411-6 p.
Keyword [en]
Animals, Chickens, Cloning; Molecular, Crystallography; X-Ray, Escherichia coli/metabolism, Humans, Ligands, Models; Molecular, Prealbumin/*chemistry/metabolism, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, Protein Structure; Tertiary, Sea Bream, Thyroxine/*chemistry, Triiodothyronine/*chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-13622DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M313553200PubMedID: 15082720OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-13622DiVA: diva2:153293
Available from: 2007-10-12 Created: 2007-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Structural and functional properties of transthyretin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural and functional properties of transthyretin
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses are rare, and in severe cases, fatal disorders caused by mutations in the TTR gene. The clinical picture is diverse, involving neuropathies and myopathies, and mainly depends on the causative mutation and the sites and rates of amyloid deposition. The ultimate aim of the field of research presented in this thesis is to prevent TTR amyloid disease. To reach this ambitious goal, a thorough understanding of the normal as well as the pathological properties of the protein is essential. Here, comparisons between TTR from humans and other species may provide valuable information.

The three-dimensional structure of TTR from Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) was determined at 1.75 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography, and was found to be structurally similar to human TTR. However, significant differences were observed in the area at and around β-strand D, an area believed to dissociate from the structure prior to amyloid formation, thereby allowing the β-strands A and B to participate in polymerization. During evolution, the preference of TTR for the thyroid hormones, 3,5,3’-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and 3,5,3’,5’-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (T4), has shifted. While human TTR has higher affinity for T4, the opposite is true in lower vertebrates, e.g. fish and reptiles, where T3 is the main ligand. We have determined two separate structures of sea bream TTR in complex with T3 and T4, both at 1.9 Å resolution, as well as the complex of human TTR with T3. A significantly wider entrance and narrower thyroid hormone binding channel suggest a structural explanation to the differences in thyroid hormone preference between human and piscine TTR.

The Tyr114Cys substitution in TTR is associated with severe systemic amyloidosis. The mutation introduces a second cysteinyl group in the TTR monomer, and has been shown to inhibit the formation of fibril formation in vitro, promoting the formation of disulfide-bonded amorphous aggregates. To deduce the role of intermolecular disulfide bonds in fibril formation we characterized the TTR Cys10Ala/Tyr114Cys double mutant. Our results suggest that an intermolecular disulfide bond at position 114 enhances the exposure of Cys10, which promotes the formation of additional intermolecular disulfide-linked assemblies. Also, we were able to isolate a disulfide-linked dimeric form of this mutant that formed protofibrils in vitro, suggesting the architecture of TTR amyloid may be the result of different underlying structures rather than that of a highly stringent assembly.

We have also been able to successfully adapt a method of protein pre-heating to enable crystallization, thereby succeeding in a particularly problematic protein crystallization experiment. By heating the protein solution, we succeeded in separating several forms of protein micro-heterogeneities from the properly folded protein species, thereby allowing the growth of well diffracting crystals.

Abstract [sv]

Ärftlig transthyretinamyloidos är en ovanlig och i allvarliga fall dödlig proteininlagringssjukdom som orsakas av mutationer i genen för transthyretin. Den kliniska bilden är huvudsakligen beroende av den bakomliggande genförändringen samt amyloidlokaliseringen och -depositionshastigheten och omfattar vanligen neuropatier och myopatier av varierande grad. Det slutgiltiga målet med forskningsfältet som presenteras i denna avhandling är att förhindra eller bota transthyretinamyloidos. En förutsättning för att lyckas med detta ambitiösa mål är en ingående förståelse för proteinets grundläggande egenskaper, såväl i normalfallet som i de patologiska processerna, bland annat genom jämförande studier av humant och icke-humant transthyretin (TTR).

Den tredimensionella röntgenkristallografiska strukturen av TTR från fisken guldsparid (Sparus aurata) bestämdes till en upplösning på 1,75Å och befanns vara strukturellt snarlik humant TTR. Signifikanta skillnader observerades emellertid i och kring β-sträng D, en region som tros dissociera från huvudstrukturen innan själva bildningen av amyloid. Enligt denna hypotes leder D-strängsdissociationen till exponering av β-strängarna A och B, vilka därmed kan delta i de reaktioner som bildar amyloid. Under evolutionen har bindningspreferenserna för thyroideahormonerna T3 (3,5,3’-trijod-L-thyronin) och T4 (3,5,3’,5’-tetrajod-L-thyronin) hos TTR ändrats. Humant TTR har högre affinitet för T4 än för T3, medan det motsatta förhållandet gäller för lägre vertebrater, t ex fisk, där T3 är den huvudsakliga liganden. Strukturerna bestämdes för guldsparid i komplex med T4 och med T3 till 1,9 Å upplösning, samt för humant TTR i komplex med T3 till 1,7 Å upplösning. Jämförande analyser visade på signifikanta skillnader i thyroideahormonbindningskanalen, vilken var vidare och grundare i fisk än i människa. Dessa strukturella skillnader kan delvis förklara olikheterna i hormonbindning mellan högre och lägre vertebrater.

Substitutionen Tyr114Cys i TTR är kopplad till en allvarlig form av systemisk transthyretinamyloidos. Mutationen introducerar en andra cysteinylgrupp i TTR-monomererna, vilket förhindrar fibrillbildning in vitro, men gynnar bildningen av amorfa disulfidbundna aggregat. För att närmare studera betydelsen av disulfidbindningar vid fibrillbildning av detta protein så karakteriserades dubbelmutanten TTR Cys10Ala/Tyr114Cys. Baserat på våra resultat föreslår vi att intermolekylära disulfidbindningar i position 114 ökar exponeringen av Cys10, vilket förstärker tendensen att bilda ytterligare disulfidbundna aggregat. Vi isolerade även en disulfidbunden dimerisk form av dubbelmutanten som kan bilda protofibriller in vitro. Baserat på denna observation föreslår vi att transthyretinamyloids underliggande arkitektur är sammansatt och kan nås genom sammanfogning av olika substrukturer snarare än genom en strikt ordnad uppbyggnad.

Vi har också modifierat och anpassat en metod för uppvärmning av proteiner för att möjliggöra kristallisation i ett synnerligen problematiskt proteinkristallisations-experiment. Genom uppvärmning av proteinlösningen lyckades vi separera olika former av mikroheterogeniteter från det rättveckade proteinet, som sedan bildade kristaller av god röntgendiffraktiv kvalitet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå centrum för molekylär patogenes (UCMP) (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet), 2008. 51 p.
Keyword
Transthyretin, Amyloidosis, X-ray crystallography, Protein structure, Protein
National Category
Structural Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1507 (URN)978-91-7264-488-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-02-15, Sal B, 1D, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-01-24 Created: 2008-01-24 Last updated: 2009-06-23Bibliographically approved
2. Transthyretin and the transthyretin-related protein: A structural study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transthyretin and the transthyretin-related protein: A structural study
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Transthyretin (TTR) is one of several proteins involved in amyloid disease in humans. Unknown conformational changes of the native state of TTR result in aggregation of TTR molecules into amyloid fibrils, which accumulate in extracellular tissues. This may result in different clinical symptoms, e.g. polyneuropathy or cardiomyopathy, depending on their site of accumulation.

Our long-term goal is to identify structural changes associated with amyloid formation. For this work, structural characterization of TTR from other species than human may provide valuable information.

The three-dimensional X-ray crystallographic structure of TTR from sea bream (Sparus aurata) was determined at 1.75 Å resolution. Human and sea bream TTR were found to be structurally very similar. However, interesting differences were present in the area at and around -strand D, which in fish forms an extended loop region. Interestingly, this area is believed to dissociate from the structure prior to amyloid formation, to allow -strands A and B to participate in polymerization.

During evolution, TTR from different species have developed differences in preference to their natural ligands, the thyroid hormones 3,5,3’-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and 3,5,3’,5’-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (T4). While human TTR has higher affinity for T4, the opposite is true in lower vertebrates, e.g. fish and reptiles. We have determined two separate structures of sea bream TTR in complex with T3 and T4, both at 1.9 Å resolution. A significantly wider entrance and narrower thyroid hormone binding channel provide a structural explanation to the differences in thyroid hormone preference between human and piscine TTR.

In a separate work, we identified a novel protein family with structural similarity to TTR, which we named the transthyretin-related protein (TRP) family. To attain information about this protein family, we cloned, expressed, purified and characterized TRP from Escherichia coli (EcTRP). Furthermore, we solved the structure of EcTRP to 1.65 Å resolution. As predicted, EcTRP and human TTR are structurally very similar. Interesting structural differences are found in the area corresponding to the thyroid hormone binding site in TTR, which due to its amino acid conservation within the TRP family we identified as a putative ligand-binding site in TRPs. The function of the TRP is not known, however, recent studies suggest that it might be involved in purine catabolism.

It has been shown that partial acid denaturation of human TTR results in amyloid-fibril formation. Interestingly, we have shown that sea bream TTR also forms amyloid-like fibrils in vitro, even though it shares only 52% sequence identity to human TTR. Corresponding studies on EcTRP did not generate amyloid-like fibrils. EcTRP has 30% sequence identity to human TTR. The fact that two of the proteins form amyloid fibrils and one does not means that they can serve as a model system for the study of amyloid formation. Further studies on these three proteins are currently performed to attain more information about the mechanism of amyloid formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå centrum för molekylär patogenes (UCMP) (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet), 2006. 44 p.
Keyword
Transthyretin, Transthyretin-related protein, X-ray crystallography, Protein structure, Amyloidosis
National Category
Structural Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-744 (URN)91-7264-064-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-04-28, Astrid Fagreus-salen, 6A103, 6A, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-04-06 Created: 2006-04-06 Last updated: 2011-03-15Bibliographically approved

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