Photon and electron collimator effects on electron output and abutting segments in energy modulated electron therapy
2005 (English)In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 32, no 10, 3178-3184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
In energy modulated electron therapy a large fraction of the segments will be arranged as abutting segments where inhomogeneities in segment matching regions must be kept as small as possible. Furthermore, the output variation between different segments should be minimized and must in all cases be well predicted. For electron therapy with add-on collimators, both the electron MLC (eMLC) and the photon MLC (xMLC) contribute to these effects when an xMLC tracking technique is utilized to reduce the x-ray induced leakage. Two add-on electron collimator geometries have been analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations: One isocentric eMLC geometry with an isocentric clearance of 35 cm and air or helium in the treatment head, and one conventional proximity geometry with a clearance of 5 cm and air in the treatment head. The electron fluence output for 22.5 MeV electrons is not significantly affected by the xMLC if the shielding margins are larger than 2-3 cm. For small field sizes and 9.6 MeV electrons, the isocentric design with helium in the treatment head or shielding margins larger than 3 cm is needed to avoid a reduced electron output. Dose inhomogeneity in the matching region of electron segments is, in general, small when collimator positions are adjusted to account for divergence in the field. The effect of xMLC tracking on the electron output can be made negligible while still obtaining a substantially reduced x-ray leakage contribution. Collimator scattering effects do not interfere significantly when abutting beam techniques are properly applied.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 32, no 10, 3178-3184 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-14056DOI: 10.1118/1.2044431PubMedID: 16279071OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-14056DiVA: diva2:153727