Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Nicotine dependence and withdrawal symptoms among occasional smokers
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Show others and affiliations
2007 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, Vol. 40, no 2, 144-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


This study describes the levels of nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, depressive mood, and risk behavior reported by male and female weekly and monthly adolescent smokers in South Africa.


A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 554 grade 9–11 weekly and monthly smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo Region. Differences between the gender groups and smoking status were analyzed while controlling for demographic characteristics.


Weekly and monthly smokers were classified as light smokers having smoked 6–10 cigarettes and 0–1 cigarettes a week, respectively. However, they displayed substantial levels of dependence, with 11.6% of weekly smokers classified as highly dependent. Furthermore, 55.9% of weekly smokers and 47.1% of the overall sample experienced more than two withdrawal symptoms. Although dependency levels and withdrawal symptoms were higher among weekly smokers, the levels were not negligible among monthly smokers. Weekly smokers reported higher levels of depressive mood and risk behavior than monthly smokers. Females reported higher levels of dependence, withdrawal symptoms, depressive mood, and lower levels of risk behavior than males. Gender differences were not found on the number of cigarettes smoked in a week.


This study demonstrates multiple symptoms of dependence among a large sample of adolescent occasional smokers in a multi-ethnic cultural setting. Smoking cessation programs may, therefore, be required to help adolescents quit smoking and possibly consider pharmacotherapy for highly dependent smokers. Prevention programs should also consider providing occasional smokers skills to identify and cope with withdrawal symptoms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 40, no 2, 144-150 p.
Keyword [en]
Adolescent, Adolescent Behavior, Adolescent Psychology, Analysis of Variance, Chi-Square Distribution, Cross-Sectional Studies, Depression/*epidemiology, Female, Humans, Male, Nicotine/adverse effects, Questionnaires, Risk-Taking, Smoking Cessation, South Africa/epidemiology, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/*epidemiology, Tobacco Use Disorder/*epidemiology
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-14587DOI: doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.09.001PubMedID: 17259054OAI: diva2:154259
Available from: 2007-06-08 Created: 2007-06-08 Last updated: 2009-11-19Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bergström, Erik
By organisation
Public Health and Clinical MedicinePaediatrics
In the same journal
Journal of Adolescent Health

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 39 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link