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Objective measurements of radiotherapy-induced erythema
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, SLU Röbäcksdalen, Umeå, Sweden, .
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
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2004 (English)In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 10, no 4, 242-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/aims: The development of acute radiation erythema is a common phenomenon among patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment. Because of the absence of reliable objective classification methods, the degree of skin reaction can at present mainly be judged subjectively in the clinic. This has motivated the present preliminary study, concerning the first steps in the development of an objective method for skin reaction classification.

Methods: Three non-invasive techniques were used: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, laser Doppler perfusion imaging and digital photography. The NIR spectra were analysed with principal component analysis (PCA), and the results from the other two with traditional univariate methods. Measurements were made on breast cancer patients who had been exposed to different irradiation doses. A total of 28 breast cancer patients participated one to three times each; 12 were treated with photons at 4 or 6 MeV and 16 were treated with high-energy electrons between 10 and 20 MeV to a maximum dose of 50 Gy.

Results: PCA of NIR spectra shows that information on radiation dose lies mainly in the first principal component. It is observed that the higher the dose the higher the score value. The results from the laser Doppler measurements show that in 79% of the cases the perfusion increases significantly with radiation dose. Analysis of the digital photography shows that a proposed skin redness index (SRI), increases with a higher radiation dose. However, the increase in most cases is not significant. By combining all data, correlation to radiation doses was seen for 74% of the patients who participated more than once.

Conclusion: All three non-invasive methods correlate with the radiation dose but to various degrees. NIR spectroscopy, laser Doppler and a combination of the three techniques are the most promising methods for characterising erythema

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: Munksgaard , 2004. Vol. 10, no 4, 242-250 p.
Keyword [en]
breast cancer, digital photography, image analysis, laser Doppler, near-infrared spectroscopy, PCA, radiation treatment
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-15526DOI: doi:10.1111/j.1600-0846.2004.00078.xOAI: diva2:155198
Available from: 2007-04-23 Created: 2007-04-23 Last updated: 2011-03-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Multivariate non-invasive measurements of skin disorders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multivariate non-invasive measurements of skin disorders
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis proposes new methods for obtaining objective and accurate diagnoses in modern healthcare. Non-invasive techniques have been used to examine or diagnose three different medical conditions, namely neuropathy among diabetics, radiotherapy induced erythema (skin redness) among breast cancer patients and diagnoses of cutaneous malignant melanoma. The techniques used were Near-InfraRed spectroscopy (NIR), Multi Frequency Bio Impedance Analysis of whole body (MFBIA-body), Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) and Digital Colour Photography (DCP).

The neuropathy for diabetics was studied in papers I and II. The first study was performed on diabetics and control subjects of both genders. A separation was seen between males and females and therefore the data had to be divided in order to obtain good models. NIR spectroscopy was shown to be a viable technique for measuring neuropathy once the division according to gender was made. The second study on diabetics, where MFBIA-body was added to the analysis, was performed on males exclusively. Principal component analysis showed that healthy reference subjects tend to separate from diabetics. Also, diabetics with severe neuropathy separate from persons less affected.

The preliminary study presented in paper III was performed on breast cancer patients in order to investigate if NIR, LDI and DCP were able to detect radiotherapy induced erythema. The promising results in the preliminary study motivated a new and larger study. This study, presented in papers IV and V, intended to investigate the measurement techniques further but also to examine the effect that two different skin lotions, Essex and Aloe vera have on the development of erythema. The Wilcoxon signed rank sum test showed that DCP and NIR could detect erythema, which is developed during one week of radiation treatment. LDI was able to detect erythema developed during two weeks of treatment. None of the techniques could detect any differences between the two lotions regarding the development of erythema.

The use of NIR to diagnose cutaneous malignant melanoma is presented as unpublished results in this thesis. This study gave promising but inconclusive results. NIR could be of interest for future development of instrumentation for diagnosis of skin cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kemi, 2006. 46 p.
Multivariate Data Analysis, Non-invasive techniques, Clinical studies, Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test, Near-InfraRed spectroscopy, Frequency Bio Impedance Analysis of whole body, Laser Doppler Imaging, Digital Colour Photography
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-865 (URN)91-7264-154-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-10-06, KB3A9, KBC-huset, Umeå, 10:30
Available from: 2006-09-14 Created: 2006-09-14 Last updated: 2012-06-26Bibliographically approved

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