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Effekter av övning och instruktion på testprestation: Några empiriska studier och analyser avseende övningens och instruktionens betydelse för testprestationen
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
1981 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report consists of a compilation of a number of studies, which all of them have dealt with the effects of practice and instruction upon a person's test results. A literature review based on a dichotomy of practice and instruction under short-term and long-term conditions respectively, as well as on the denign of the investigations and certain characteristics of the individuals, resulted in general as well as in more specific statements on the arising of practice and instruction effects. In all the empirical investigations quantitative-numerical tests were used (KVR and NOG respectively), where one-of them (NOG) is a part of the so-called Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test. The basic aim was to investigate if short-term practice (KTÖ) and short-term instruction (KTI) could have an effect upon the score of these tests. In this case practice was defined as taking a pre-test, and in the first three studies the instruction consisted of two phases: a first one concerning general testing strategies, and a second one concerning a specially adapted problem solving strategy. As a basis for the forming of this special problem solving strategy for NOG served a logically constructed and sequential problem solving strategy, which was formed as a direct influence on the individual via instruction in the first three studies, and as an indirect influence on the individual via the item format in the last three studies. From the achieved results can be mentioned that the literature paid attention to the importance of a person's knowledge of and familiarity with tests and examinations in a specific as well as in a more general sense. If a person has no or very little former experience of tests there is a certain probability that there will be a higher score due to KTÖ or KTI. This probability is reduced considerably if the person has some or relatively great former experience in this respect. This was also verified indirectly in the empirical studies, which were mainly carried out on individuals who could be classified as experienced in and familiar with tests. No practice or instruction effects could be found either in the first three studies or indirectly in the last three studies. In these ones a specially constructed item format had been used, which had been formed according to the sequential problem solving strategy. With the intention to obtain an interpretation frame for practice and instruction effects on tests, the basis in this report has been a theoretically constructed model, whereby the achieved effects are first of all related to the individual variable former experience, and secondly to whether a test consists of correctly or incorrectly constructed items.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1981. , 45 p.
Series
Akademiska avhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, ISSN 0281-6768 ; 14
Keyword [en]
Practice, instruction, coaching, item format, test-taking behaviour, test-wiseness, validity
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-16609ISBN: 91-7174-074-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-16609DiVA: diva2:156282
Public defence
1981-05-15, Humanisthuset, hörsal F, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:15
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2007-10-07 Created: 2007-10-07 Last updated: 2015-04-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Effekter av övning och instruktion på testprestation: en litteraturgranskning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effekter av övning och instruktion på testprestation: en litteraturgranskning
1981 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Effects of practice and instruction on test performance : a literature review
Abstract [sv]

I föreliggande litteraturgranskning ingår studier som har behandlat övnings- och instruktionseffekter på test. De studier som genomförts inom problemområdet är relativt många och varierar såväl i uppläggning som i innehåll och genomförande och därför har granskningen skett utifrån en speciell systematisering och avser i huvudsak enbart standardiserade test. Utgångspunkten har varit att de redoivsade studierna sorterats och analyserats under huvudrubrikerna övning och instruktion. Inom respektive rubrik har studierna sedan också sorterats enligt ett visst system som inneburit parallellitet och möjligheter till jämförelser inom och mellan betingelserna övning och instruktion. Studiernas design har utgjort den huvudsakliga struktureringsvariabeln och därutöver har struktureringen gjorts utifrån övnings- och instruktions-betingelsens varaktighet, vilken typ av test som utnyttjats, samt individkarakteristika. Det sistnämnda har inneburit att försökspersonernas ålder, kön, prestationsnivå och tidigare erfarenhet av test har innefattats. I den avslutande diskussionen, som innehåller en sammanfattande beskrivning av övnings- och instruktionseffekter på test, behandlas dels olika problem som är förknippade med genomförandet av en litteraturgranskning inom detta område,dels vilka slutsatser som kan dras utifrån existerande forskning inom området.

Abstract [en]

This review of literature includes studies that have dealt with effects of practice and instruction on tests. The studies that have been carried out within the problem area are fairly numerous and vary both with regard to design content and procedure. This has been taken into account in the systematization used in the review. Furthermore the review deals on the whole only with standardized tests. The systematization or structure which has been used means the starting-point has been that the reported studies have been classified and analyzed under the main headings practice and instruction. The studies have also, within each heading, been classified according to a certain system implying parallelism and possibilities of comparisons within and between practice and instruction. The design of the studies has been the main structuring variable and the structure has, in addition to that, been based on the permanence of practice and instruction, type of test used, and individual characteristics. The latter has meant that the subjects' age, sex performance level and earlier experience of tests has been included in the structure. The concluding discussion, including a description of the effects of practice and instruction on tests, deals with, on one hand, various problems associated with the procedure of a review of literature within this special problem area and, on the other, the conclusions that can be drawn on the basis of existing research within this field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1981. 77 p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 93
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67848 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-04 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2013-04-09Bibliographically approved
2. Effekter av övning och instruktion på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effekter av övning och instruktion på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov
1981 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Effects of practice and instruction on a quantitative-numerical test
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universtitet, 1981. 30 bl. p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter, Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 94
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67944 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-16 Created: 2013-04-09 Last updated: 2015-04-09Bibliographically approved
3. Effekter av övning och instruktion på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov vid konstant-hållande av verbal och icke-verbal förmåga
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effekter av övning och instruktion på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov vid konstant-hållande av verbal och icke-verbal förmåga
1981 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Effects of practic and instruction on a quantitative-numerical test when adjusted for verbal and non-verbal ability
Abstract [sv]

Studiens syfte var dels att studera effekter av betingelserna övning och instruktion på ett kvantitativt-nume-riskt prov, dels att undersöka om förmåga att tillgodogöra sig respektive betingelse var beroende av intellektuell prestationsförmåga som denna uppskattades utifrån två begåvningsprov. Det kvantitativt-numeriska provet, som betecknades K.VR och bestod av tre delprov, var en förlaga till det nuvarande högskoleprovet. De prov som utnyttjades för att erhålla en uppskattning av intellektuell förmåga utgjordes av ett verbalt och ett ickeverbalt prov från WIT III. Studiens design var en utvidgad variant av Solomon's 4-gruppsdesign och i studien ingick 105 folkhögskoleelever som försökspersoner. Efter det att begåvningsfaktorns inverkan kontrollerats via statistisk metodik blev studiens utfall att ingen av betingelserna övning eller instruktion resulterade i en förhöjd poäng på efterprovet. Tänkbara anledningar till det erhållna resultatet diskuteras.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was, on one hand, to study the effect of practice and instruction on a quantitative-numerical test and, on the other, to examine whether the ability to profit by each treatment could be related to level of intellectual ability as estimated from two intelligence tests. The quantitative-numerical test, designated KVR and consisting of three subtests, was a preliminary version of the present so-called Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test and the tests used to obtain an estimate of intellectual ability were one verbal and one non-verbal test from WIT III. The design of the study was an extended variant of Solomon's 4-group design and the subjects were 105 folk high school students. The outcome of the study, when the influence of the factor of the subjects' ability had been eliminated through statistical analysis, was that neither of the two treatments, practice and instruction, resulted in a higher score on the posttest. Possible reasons for the obtained result are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1981. 15 p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 95
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67839 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-04 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2013-04-09Bibliographically approved
4. Instruktion avseende strategi och partiell kunskap på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Instruktion avseende strategi och partiell kunskap på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov
1981 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Instruction about strategy and partial knowledge on a quantitative-numerical test
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1981. 24 bl. p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter, Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 96
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67946 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-16 Created: 2013-04-09 Last updated: 2015-04-09Bibliographically approved
5. Uppgiftsformat och partiell kunskap på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uppgiftsformat och partiell kunskap på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov
1981 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Item format and partial knowledge on a quantitative-numerical test
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1981. 27 bl p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter, Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 97
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67948 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-16 Created: 2013-04-09 Last updated: 2015-04-09Bibliographically approved
6. Uppgiftsformat, partiell kunskap och säkerhet på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uppgiftsformat, partiell kunskap och säkerhet på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov
1981 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Item format, partial knowledge and confidence on a quantitative-numerical test
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna studie var att pröva en logiskt uppbyggd med sekvensiell problemlösningsstrategi för ett prov (NOG) avsett att mäta kvantitativ-numerisk förmåga. Provet ingår i den nuvarande versionen av det s k högskoleprovet. Individernas problemlösningsbeteende på NOG formades i enlighet med den sekvensiella problemlösningsstrategin via ett experimentellt uppgiftsformat (NOGx). Studiens design var en variant av en experiment-kontrollgruppsdesign, där jämförbarheten mellan de två ingående gruppernas initiala prestationsförmåga erhölls utifrån ett verbalt förprov (ORD). I studien ingick 257 elever från samtliga linjer i gymnasiets årskurs 3. Resultatet visade att den sekvensiella problemlösningsstrategin på det hela taget inte hade någon påvisbar effekt. Enbart i de fall där C eller E var korrekt alternativ förelåg en tendens till att uppgiftsformatet eller indirekt den sekvensiella strategin kunde ha viss betydelse. Betydelsen av alternativ C, E relativt A, B, D som korrekt alternativ framkom också vid försökspersonernas säkerhetsskattningar.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to test a logical and sequential problem-solving strategy for a test (NOG) aiming at measuring quantitative-numerical ability. The test forms part of the present version of the so-called Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test. The subjects' problem-solving strategy for NOG was formed via an experimental item format (NOG*). The design of the study was a variant of an experiment-control group design, where indications of comparability between the initial performance of the two groups were obtained from a verbal pretest (ORD). The subjects were 257 students from all lines in grade 3 in the upper secondary school. The results showed that the sequential problem-solving strategy did not, on the whole, have any noticeable effect. Only when C or E was the correct response was there a tendency of the item format or, indirectly the sequential strategy could have a noticeable effect. The significance of alternative C, E being correct in relation to A, B, D by the subjects' confidence ratings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1981. 28 bl. p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter, Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 98
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67949 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-09 Created: 2013-04-09 Last updated: 2015-04-09Bibliographically approved
7. Uppgiftsformat, partiell kunskap och säkerhet på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov: en studie med kända uppgiftskarakteristika
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uppgiftsformat, partiell kunskap och säkerhet på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov: en studie med kända uppgiftskarakteristika
1981 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Item format, partial knowledge and confidence on a quantitative-numerical test : a study with selected item characteristics
Abstract [sv]

I föreliggande studie var syftet att pröva en logiskt uppbyggd och sekvensiell probleml ösningsstrategi för ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov (NOG). Detta prov ingår som ett av total t sexdel p r ov i det s k högskoleprovet . Den logiskt uppbyggda pr obl emlösni ngsst rat egi n t ogs som u t gångspunkt för ut formandet a v et texperiment e l l t uppgi f t s f o rmat (NOG**) och st udi ens upp läggn ingbaser ades på en j ämf ö r e l s e a v samma pr ov i två versi oner : enkonvent ionel l (NOG) och en exper iment e l l (NOGx x ) . Indi kat i onerpå at t exper iment - och kont rol lgrupp var ini t iai t j ämf ör bar ai pr e s tat ionsavseende erhöl l s ut i f rån et t verbal t f ö rprov (ORD) .I st udi e n ingick 264 el ever f rån samt l i g a f em l injer i gymnas i e t sår skur s 3. St udi ens ut fal l bl e v at t det int e förel å g någon ski l l nadi poängmede l vä rde, baser a t på ant ingen konvent ionel l el lerdi f ferent iel l poäng , mel lan den g rupp som erhål l i t det exper imentell a (NOGx x ) och den g rupp som e rhål l i t det konvent ionel l a(NOG) uppgi f tsf o rmat e t . Det t a i ndi ker ade at t den sekvensi e l l apr obl eml ösni ngsst rat egi n int e hade någon di rekt påvi sbar ef fektel ler indi rekt at t det konvent ionel l a NOG-f o rmat e t int e varkompl ext . Om a nal ysen baser ades på C el ler E som kor rekt al ter nati v bl e v dessutom det exper iment e l l a uppgi f t s f o rmat e t komplexar e än det konvent ionel l a (NOG). Konsekvense r a v det er hållna ut fal let di skut e ras.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to test a logical and sequential problem-solving strategy for a quantitative-numerical test(NOG). This test is one of t h e si x subt est s i n the so-cal ledSwed i s h Schol ast i c Apt i t ude Test . The pr obl em- sol v i n g st rat egywas t aken a s the star t ing-point for t h e const ruct ion of an exper i menta l i tem f ormat (N0Gx x ) and the desi g n of the s tudy wasbased on a compa r i s o n of t h e same test i n two versi ons: oneconvent ional (NOG) and one exper iment a l (N0Gx x ) . Indi cat i onsof exper iment - and cont rol g roup bei n g ini t ial l y comparab l ewi t h r egar d t o per f o rmanc e wer e obt a i ned f rom a verbal pretest(DRD) . The subj ect s wer e 264 st udent s f rom al l f ive l ines i ng rade 3 i n the upper seconda r y school . The outcome of t h es tudy di d not show any di f ference i n mean scor e , based onei ther convent ional or di f ferent ial scor e , between the g roupwhi c h had t aken the exper iment a l (NOGx x ) and the g roup wh i c hhad t aken t h e convent ional (NOG) i tem f o rmat . Thi s i ndi catedthat t h e sequent ial pr obl em- sol v i n g st rategy di d not hav e anydi rect l y obv ious ef fect s and indi rect ly, i t i ndi cat e d thatt h e convent ional i tem f ormat was not comp lex. I f t h e anal ysi swas based on C or E bei n g t h e cor rect r espons e t h e exper imentali tem f ormat was al s o more comp l e x t han t h e convent ional(NOG). Consequence s of t h e obt a i ned outcome ar e di scussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1981. 24 p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 99
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67838 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Note

nr 99 1980 på omslaget

Available from: 2013-04-04 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2013-04-09Bibliographically approved

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