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Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: sammanfattning och diskussion
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
1980 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Bilingualism in Tornedalen : summary and discussion (English)
Abstract [en]

This report is a summary and a discussion of a research project on bilingualism in Tornedalen. Within the project "Education in sparsely populated areas", financed by the National Board of Education, a number of studies were carried out aiming at giving a description of the present linguistic situation (Swedish/Finnish) of the pupils in the comprehensive school. Another aim was to see if there was any correlation between school achievement and the linguistic abilities of the pupils (Swedish-Finnish) . In this connection the intention was also to develop methods of measurement and to construct tests. The basis of the work was a model originally developed by Spolsky (1974) and had in a broad sense a "sociology of language" approach. The population consisted of all the 354 pupils in grade 4 in the district of Haparanda, Övertorneå and Paj ala. The gathering of data in which combination of different methods such as interviews, observations and testings were used, took place at the turn of the year 1975/76. The results have been published in six reports (nr 78-83) in the series of reports of the Department of Education, Pedagogiska rapporter, Umeå (in Swedish). In this summary the main results are accounted for concerning the pupil's use of language and linguistic knowledge as well as results and marks. The results show that the use of the Finnish language is almost restricted to the home environment. As for the knowledge of Finnish it can be noted that about 40 per cent have active abilities and the rest of the pupils are purely Swedish speaking. The difference between the mentioned groups as regards the other measurements of achievement used were small or insignificant especially if the social background of the pupils was taken into consideration. The main conclusion was that the Finnish language in Tornedalen is decreasing and that in one or two generations probably all the area will be Swedish speaking. The consequences of this are discussed,and the importance of school and education is also dealt with. Suggestions for further research are given such as longitudinal and iterated cross-sectional studies and comparative studies in other bilingual areas. Studies about attitudes to the languages in Tornedalen are suggested as well as intensified work on the developing of methods in bilingual research. Finnally further investigations on the covariation between different factors and school achievement are recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1980. , 73 p.
Series
Akademiska avhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, ISSN 0281-6768 ; 13
Keyword [en]
Bilingualism, bilingual pupils, language use, linguistic ability, oral production, sociology of language, Tornedalen
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Pedagogy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-16610ISBN: 91-7174-057-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-16610DiVA: diva2:156283
Public defence
1980-12-04, Humanisthuset hörsal G, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:15
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2007-10-07 Created: 2007-10-07 Last updated: 2013-04-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: inledning och allmän bakgrund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: inledning och allmän bakgrund
1980 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Bilingualism in Tornedalen : introduction and general background
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten är den första av sex där undersökningar inom ramen för det SÖ-finansierade projektet Glesbygdens skolfrågor III redovisas. Projektet som behandlar problem kring tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen har som syfte att ge en beskrivning av språkläget i området bland annat genom att kartlägga elevernas färdigheter i finska och svenska samt att undersöka om det förekommer någon samvariation mellan skolprestationer (test och betyg) och elevernas språkliga färdigheter. Vidare ar syftet att konstruera test och utveckla mätmetoder, främst för att uppnå tidigare nämnda syften, men också för att kunna användas i andra undersökningar om tvåspråkighet.Rapporten inleds med en kortfattad beskrivning av Tornedalen med avseende på befolkningsutveckling, näringsstruktur och språksituation. I samband därmed behandlas kortfattat skol- och språkpolitik. Tvåspråkig-hetsforksning i allmänhet och i Tornedalen i synnerhet redovisas.De teoretiska utgångspunkterna för arbetet beskrivs och slutligen redovisas en arbetsmodell som legat till grund för de genomförda undersökningarna.Undersökningsgruppen utgjordes av samtliga elever i åk 4 (398) i kommunerna Haparanda, Övertorneå och Pajala. Datainsamling skedde genom en kombination av olika metoder t ex intervjuer, observationer och testningar.Rapporten avslutas med en beskrivning av undersökningsgruppen med avseende på bland annat kön, bostadsort, familjesituation samt test- och betygsmedelvärden. Det konstateras att socialgruppsfördelningen är något avvikande från riksgenomsnittet medan skillnaderna ifråga om test och betyg är små eller obefintliga.

Abstract [en]

This report is the first out of six where investigations within the project Education in sparsely populated areas, financed by the National Board of Education, are accounted for. The project deals with problems of bilingualism in Tornedalen and aims at giving a description of the linguistic situation of the area e.g. by describing the pupils knowledge of Swedish and Finnish and by investigation if there is any correlation between school achievements (tests and marks) and the linguistic abilities of the pupils. Furthermore the aim is to construct tests and develop methods of measurement mainly to be able to reach the earlier mentioned aims. They may also be used in other bilingual investigations.The report begins with a short description of Tornedalen as regards migration and other population trends, economic structure and linguistic situation. In connection with this school and language policy is breifly dealt with. Reasearch on bilingualism in general and Tornedalen in particular is accounted for.The theoretical approaches of this work are described and finally a working model as a basis of the investigations carried out is accounted for.The population consisted of all the 354 pupils in- grade 4 in the districts of Haparanda, Övertorneå and Pajala. The compilation of data was done through combination of varions different methods e.g. interviews, observations and testings.The report ends with a description of the population with respect to - among other twings - sex, residential area, family situation, grade point-average and results on tests. It could be stated that the distribution in social classes is somewhat deviant from the national average while the differences as for tests and grades are slight.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1980. 44 p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 78
Keyword
Meänkieli, Tvåspråkighet, Sverige, Norrbotten, Tornedalen
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-68364 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-17 Created: 2013-04-17 Last updated: 2013-04-18Bibliographically approved
2. Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: elevernas språkanvändning och språkliga miljö
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: elevernas språkanvändning och språkliga miljö
1980 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Bilingualism in Tornedalen : the use of language of the pupils and their linguistic environment
Abstract [sv]

I rapporten redovisas en delundersökning inom ramen för det SÖ-fi nansierade projektet Glesbygdens skolfrågor, del III. Denna delundersökning behandlar Tornedalselever-nas språkliga miljö. Vilket eller vilka språk använder/ kommer man i kontakt med i skolan och på fritiden. 354 elever (åk 4) i kommunerna Haparanda, Övertorneå och Pajala intervjuades och observerades. Resultaten visar att huvuddelen av eleverna nästan alltid uteslutande använder svenska. Ett undantag utgör dock hemmiljön där finska används något mera främst vid samtal med föräldrarna. Skillnader finns mellan tätorter/glesbygd. Användningen av finskan är störst utanför tätorterna. Elevernas språkliga miljö är dock i större utsträckning finskspråkig. Förutom i hemmet kommer eleverna i kontakt med finska språket via finska televisionens utsändningar, vilka i betydande utsträckning följs av barnen. Inga skillnader i språkanvändning hos barnen med avseende på kön eller social bakgrund återfanns. Då det gäller barnens föräldrar fanns dock klara skillnader mellan socialgrupperna (socialgrupp 3 använder finska språket mera än socialgrupp 1 och 2). Slutsatsen, som kan dras utifrån nämnda resultat, främst jämförelsen mellan föräldrarnas och barnens språkanvändning blir att finska språket minskar och sannolikt kommer att försvinna inom en eller två generationer.

Abstract [en]

A part of the project "Education in sparsely populated areas" financed by the National Board of Education is accounted for in this report. This investigation deals with the linguistic environment of the pupils of Torne-dalen. Which language (Finnish/Swedish) or languages do they use/come in contact with at school and in their spare time. 354 pupils (in grade 4) in the districts of Haparanda, Övertorneå and Pajala were interviewed and observed. The results show that the majority of the pupils, nearly always use Swedish. However, one exception is the home environment where Finnish is used somewhat more frequently especially in conversations with parents. Differences between densely and sparsely populated areas can be found. The use of the Finnish language is most frequent outside the densely populated areas. The linguistic environment of the pupils, however, is to a greater extent Finnish. Apart from coming in contact with the Finnish language in their homes the pupils also come in contact with the Finnish language via Finnish television, which is frequently watched by the children. No differences in the children's use of language as regards sex or social background could be found. When it comes to the parents there were, however, clear differences between social classes. Social class "3" (working class) uses the Finnish language more than the other social classes do. The conclusion which can be drawn from the results especially the comparison between the parents' and the children's language use, is that the use of the Finnish language is decreasing and will probably disappear within one or two generations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1980. 35 p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 79
Keyword
Meänkieli, Tvåspråkighet, Sverige, Norrbotten, Tornedalen
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-68351 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-17 Created: 2013-04-17 Last updated: 2013-04-18Bibliographically approved
3. Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: elevernas språkkunskaper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: elevernas språkkunskaper
1980 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Bilingualism in Tornedalen : the linguistic ability of the pupils
Abstract [sv]

Inom det SÖ-finansierade projektet Glesbygdens skolfrågor, del III, utnyttjades flera olika metoder att mäta och beskriva elevernas språkkunskaper (svenska-finska). I denna rapport redovisas en delstudie där skattningsmetoder utnyttjats (självskattning och lärarskattning). 354 elever (åk 4) i kommunerna Haparanda, Övertorneå och Pajala ingick. Två typer av självskattning genomfördes, odifferentierad respektive differentierad skattning. Resultaten visar att den förstnämnda metoden i förhållande till den senare ger avsevärda överskattningar av språkkunskaperna. En jämförelse mellan elev- (själv-) och lärarskattning visar ett relativt högt samband. Ungefär var femte elev anser sig ha medelgoda eller bättre än medelgoda kunskaper då det gäller att tala finska medan var tredje anser sig förstå språket i motsvarande grad. Skillnader mellan elevernas kunskaper med avseende på bostadsort (tätort-gles-bygd), social bakgrund men ej kön erhölls. Det är utanför tätorterna samt i socialgrupp tre man återfinner elever med störst kunskap i finska språket. Resultaten visar vidare att kunskaperna att förstå finska är betydligt större än kunskaperna att tala finska.

Abstract [en]

In the project "Education in sparsely populated areas", financed by the National Board of Education, several different methods of measuring and describing the linguistic ability of the pupils (Swedish - Finnish) were used. In this report a study, where rating methods have been used (self rating and teacher rating) is accounted for.,354 pupils (in grade 4) in the districts of Haparanda, Övertorneå and Pajala took part. Two types of self rating methods were carried out, undifferentiated and differentiated rating respectively. The results show that the first method compared to the second one yields considerable overestimations of the linguistic ability. A comparison between pupil (i.e. self-) and teacher ratings shows a relatively high correlation. Approximately every fifth pupil considers himself or herself to have an average or above average ability of speaking Finnish, whereas every third pupil considers himself or herself able to understand the language to the same extent. Differences between the ability of the pupils regarding their residential areas (densely populated - sparsely populated areas) and social background were found but not as for sex. It is outside the densely populated areas and in "social group 3" (working class) that you will find the pupils who have the greatest knowledge of the Finnish language. Furthermore the results show that the ability of understanding Finnish is much greater than that of speaking it.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1980. 18 p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 80
Keyword
Meänkieli, Tvåspråkighet, Sverige, Norrbotten, Tornedalen
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-68357 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-17 Created: 2013-04-17 Last updated: 2013-04-18Bibliographically approved
4. Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: mätning av kunskaper i finska
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: mätning av kunskaper i finska
1980 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Bilingualism in Tornedalen : measuring knowledge of Finnish
Abstract [sv]

Inom ramen för det SÖ-finansierade projektet Glesbygdens skolfrågor III, utfördes tre delstudier med syfte att mäta och beskriva elevernas språkkunskaper. I denna rapport redovisas resultaten av tre utarbetade test, två som mäter aktiva färdigheter (ordkunskaps- och ordproduk-tionsprov) samt ett förståelseprov. 354 elever i åk 4 i kommunerna Haparanda, Övertorneå och Pajala ingick. Testens realiabilitet befanns vara godtagbar. Erhållna resultat stöder i stort resultaten utifrån tidigare genomförda skattningar. (Rönmark & Wikström, 1980 c). Inga skillnader i språkkunskaper med avseende på kön erhölls, däremot med avseende på kommun, tätort-glesbygd och socialgrupp. Resultaten visar att testresultaten har ett högre samband med lärarskattningar än elevskattningar. Testresultaten kommer inom ramen för projektet längre fram att ligga till grund för en differentiering mellan å ena sidan elever med passiva kunskaper i finska och å andra sidan helt svenskspråkiga elever.

Abstract [en]

As a part of the project "Education in sparsely populated areas" financed by the National Board of Education three studies aiming at measuring and describing the linguistic ability of the pupils were carried out. This report accounts for the results of three constructed tests, two of them measuring active abilities (test in knowledge of words and production of words) and the third a comprehension test. 354 pupils in grade 4 in the districts of Haparanda, över-torneå and Pajala took part. The reliability of the tests was acceptable. Achieved results support on the whole the results of previously made ratings (Rönmark & Wikström, 1980). No differences in linguistic ability as regards sex were obtained whereas differences were found regarding residential areas,densely populated areas - sparsely populated areas, and social class. The results show that the tests have a higher correlation with teacher ratings than pupil ratings. Further on within the project the test results will be the basis of a differentiation between on the one hand pupils with passive knowledge of Finnish and on the other harrd totally Swedish speaking pupils.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1980. 21 p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 81
Keyword
Meänkieli, Tvåspråkighet, Sverige, Norrbotten, Tornedalen
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-68366 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-17 Created: 2013-04-17 Last updated: 2013-04-18Bibliographically approved
5. Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: bildberättelser
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: bildberättelser
1980 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Bilingualism in Tornedalen : picture stories
Abstract [sv]

Inom ramen för det SÖ-finansierade projektet Glesbygdens skolfrågor III genomfördes tre delstudier med syfte att mäta och beskriva elevernas språkkunskaper. I denna rapport redovisas resultaten av en delstudie, där en metod, bild-berättelse, använts för att mäta muntlig produktion på de två språken. Samtliga elever (354) i åk 4 i kommunerna Haparanda, Övertorneå och Pajala ingick i delstudien. Alla fick med utgångspunkt i förelagda bildserier berätta innehållet på svenska och finska. Berättelserna spelades in på band och bedömdes i dels en femgradig skala samt i form av parvisa jämförelser. Varje berättelse bedömdes av minst fyra bedömare och överensstämmelsen mellan bedömarna var mycket hög. Av resultaten framgår att av undersökningens 354 elever har 154 aktiva kunskaper (kan berätta) i finska. Prestationerna inom denna grupp (uttryckt i femgradig skala) är approximativt normalfördelade förde båda språken. Resultaten visar också att vare sig de s k"balansteorierna"el1er idéerna om halvspråkighet får något stöd. I stället konstateras ett positivt samband mellan prestationerna på respektive språk.

Abstract [en]

In the project, "Education in sparsely populated areas", financed by the National Board of Education three studies, aiming at measuring and describing the linguistic ability of the pupils, were carried out. In this report the results of a study are accounted for where a method, picture stories, has been used to measure oral production in the two languages. All the pupils (354) in grade 4 in the districts of Haparanda, övertorneå and Pajala took part. All the pupils were given the task of telling picture stories in Swedish and Finnish. The stories were taped, judged, on a five-grade scale and in form of pair-wise comparisons. Every story was judged by at least 4 judges and the correlation between the judges was very high. The results show that out of the 354 pupils in the investigation 154 have active ability (i.e. can tell, the story) in Finnish. The achievements in this group (expressed on a five-grade-scale) are approximately normally distributed for the two languages. The results also show that neither the so-called "balance theories" nor the ideas of semibilingualism get any support. Instead a positive correlation between the achievements in the two languages is found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1980. 13 p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 82
Keyword
Meänkieli, Tvåspråkighet Sverige Norrbotten, Tornedalen
National Category
Pedagogy Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67841 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-04 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2013-04-18Bibliographically approved
6. Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: elevernas skolprestationer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tvåspråkighet i Tornedalen: elevernas skolprestationer
1980 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Bilingualism in Tornedalen : the achievement of the pupils
Abstract [sv]

I rapporten redovisas en delstudie inom ramen för det SÖ-finansierade projektet Glesbygdens skolfrågor, del III. Denna delstudie undersöker om elevernas skolprestationer (betyg, test) samvarierar med språkkunskaper (svenska, finska). I studien ingick 354 elever (åk 4) i kommunerna Haparanda, Övertorneå och Pajala. Rapporten inleds med en genomgång av tidigare forskning på området, främst med avseende på olika prestationsmåtts samvariation med olika typer av språkliga faktorer (enspråkighet och olika typer av tvåspråkighet). Eleverna indelades utifrån tidigare genomförda testningar i tre grupper:Elever med aktiva kunskaper i finska, elever med enbart passiva kunskaper i finska och elever helt utan kunskaper i finska. Den förstnämnda gruppen indelades vidare utifrån elevernas färdigheter i respektive språk. Skillnaderna mellan grupperna med avseende på de använda prestationsmåtten var små eller obefintliga, speciellt om hänsyn togs till socialgruppstillhörighet. Dock förekommer samvariation mellan prestationsmått och färdigheter i svenska språket. Slutsatsen blir att många faktorer förutom de rent språkliga spelar in i detta sammanhang, och de eventuella skillnader som finns mellan grupperna manifesteras inte i enkla prestationsmått.

Abstract [en]

In this report a study within the project "Education in sparsely populated areas" financed by the National Board of Education is accounted for. This study examines if the achievement of the pupils (grades, tests) has any correlation with their linguistic ability (Swedish, Finnish). 354 pupils (in grade 4) in the districts of Haparanda, Övertorneå and Pajala took part. The report begins with a survey of previous research in this field, especially concerning correlations between different measures of achievement and different types of linguistic factors (monolingualism and different types of bi IinguaIi sm).Based on earlier testings the pupils were divided into three groups: pupils with active knowledge of Finnish;.pupils with only passive knowledge of Finnish and pupils without any knowledge of Finnish at all. The first group mentioned above was furthermore divided according to their abilities in the two languages. The differences between the groups as regards the measures of achievement used here were small or insignificant, especially if social class was taken into account. There is, however, a correlation between measures of achievement and knowledge of Swedish. The conclusion is that many factors apart from purely linguistic ones are of importance in this context, and possible differences that exist between the groups cannot be displayed in simple measures of achievement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1980. 22 p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 83
Keyword
Meänkieli, Tvåspråkighet Sverige Norrbotten, Tornedalen
National Category
Pedagogy Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67740 (URN)
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-03-28 Created: 2013-03-28 Last updated: 2013-04-18Bibliographically approved

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