Properties of RNA polymerase bypass mutants: implications for the role of ppGpp and its co-factor DksA in controlling transcription dependent on sigma54.
2007 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, Vol. 282, no 25, 18046-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The bacterial nutritional and stress alarmone ppGpp and its co-factor DksA directly bind RNA polymerase to regulate its activity at certain sigma70-dependent promoters. A number of promoters that are dependent on alternative sigma-factors function poorly in the absence of ppGpp. These include the Pseudomonas-derived sigma54-dependent Po promoter and several other sigma54-promoters, the transcription from which is essentially abolished in Escherichia coli devoid of ppGpp and DksA. However, ppGpp and DksA have no apparent effect on reconstituted in vitro sigma54-transcription, which suggests an indirect mechanism of control. Here we report analysis of five hyper-suppressor mutants within the beta- and beta'-subunits of core RNA polymerase that allow high levels of transcription from the sigma54-Po promoter in the absence of ppGpp. Using in vitro transcription and competition assays, we present evidence that these core RNA polymerase mutants are defective in one or both of two properties that could combine to explain their hyper-suppressor phenotypes: (i) modulation of competitive association with sigma-factors to favor sigma54-holoenzyme formation over that with sigma70, and (ii) reduced innate stability of RNA polymerase-promoter complexes, which mimics the essential effects of ppGpp and DksA for negative regulation of stringent sigma70-promoters. Both these properties of the mutant holoenzymes support a recently proposed mechanism for regulation of sigma54-transcription that depends on the potent negative effects of ppGpp and DksA on transcription from powerful stringent sigma70-promoters, and suggests that stringent regulation is a key mechanism by which the activity of alternative sigma-factors is controlled to meet cellular requirements.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 282, no 25, 18046-56 p.
Binding; Competitive, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/*genetics/*metabolism, Escherichia coli/metabolism, Escherichia coli Proteins/*metabolism, Gene Expression Regulation; Bacterial, Models; Biological, Mutation, Promoter Regions (Genetics), Pseudomonas/metabolism, Pyrophosphatases/*physiology, RNA Polymerase Sigma 54/*metabolism, Transcription; Genetic
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-16710DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M610181200PubMedID: 17456470OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-16710DiVA: diva2:156383