Dosage-dependent release of 45Ca was observed from prelabeled mouse calvarial bones after treatment with two thiazolidinediones, troglitazone and ciglitazone. Release of 45Ca by ciglitazone was decreased by the osteoclast inhibitors acetazolamide, calcitonin, 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate, and IL-4, but not affected by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonist, GW 9662, the mitotic inhibitor, hydroxyurea, or indomethacin. Enhanced expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) mRNA and protein and decreased osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA and protein were noted after ciglitazone treatment of calvariae. Ciglitazone and RANKL each caused increased mRNA expression of osteoclast markers: calcitonin receptor, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9, integrin beta3, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 2. OPG inhibited mRNA expression of RANKL stimulated by ciglitazone, mRNA expression of osteoclast markers stimulated by ciglitazone and RANKL, and 45Ca release stimulated by troglitazone and ciglitazone. Increased expression of IL-1alpha mRNA by ciglitazone was not linked to resorption stimulated by the thiazolidinedione. Ciglitazone did not increase adipogenic gene expression but enhanced osteocalcin mRNA in calvariae. In addition to exhibiting sensitivity to OPG, data indicate that stimulation of osteoclast differentiation and activity by thiazolidinediones may occur by a nonperoxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent pathway that does not require cell proliferation, prostaglandins, or IL-1alpha but is characterized by an increased RANKL to OPG ratio.
2005. Vol. 146, no 10, 4349-4361 p.