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GIS for writing: Applying Geographical Information Systems Techniques to Data Mine Writings' Cognitive Processes
Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
2007 (English)In: Writing and Cognition: Research and Applications, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007, 83-96 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter presents the use of the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for data mining and visualising information about cognitive activities involved in writing. The information can be collected from various sources, such as keystroke logs, manual analysis of stimulated recall sessions and think-aloud protocols. After an introduction to the GIS, an English as a foreign language (EFL) writing session is used to explain how to create the various GIS layers from the different information/analysis sources, and show how they can be easily data mined using the GIS techniques to improve our understanding of the cognitive processes in writing. The illustrative graphs used to provide an insight into the methodology are based on keystroke-logged data, manual researcher-based analyses and coded stimulated recall data that were collected after the writing session. Also a tool for visualisation and data mining, the GIS technique can support analysis of the interaction of cognitive processes during writing focusing on the individual writer, differences between writers or the writing processes in general. Depending on the research question, GIS affords the possibility to aggregate data to the level of writers, de-aggregate data in any way chosen or display data as attributes of individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007. 83-96 p.
Series
Studies in Writing, ISSN 1572-6304 ; 20
National Category
Languages and Literature
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-18221ISI: 000274236700006ISBN: 978-0-08-045094-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-18221DiVA: diva2:157894
Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2014-05-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Writing and revising: Didactic and Methodological Implications of Keystroke Logging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Writing and revising: Didactic and Methodological Implications of Keystroke Logging
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Keystroke logging records keyboard activity during writing. Time and position of all keystrokes are stored in a log file, which facilitates detailed analysis of all pauses, revisions and movements undertaken during writing. Keystroke logging further includes a replay function, which can be used as a tool for reflection and analysis of the writing process. During writing, writers continuously plan, transcribe, read, and revise in order to create a text that meets with their goals and intentions for the text. These activities both interact and trigger one another.

This thesis includes studies in which keystroke recordings are used as bases for visualisation of and reflection on the cognitive processes that underlie writing. The keystroke logging methodology is coupled with Geographical information systems (GIS) and stimulated recall in order to enhance the understanding of keystroke logged data as representations of interacting cognitive activities during writing. Particular attention is paid to writing revision and a taxonomy for analysis of on-line revision is proposed. In the taxonomy, revisions made at the point of inscription are introduced as ‘pre-contextual’ revisions, and highlighted as potential windows on cognitive processing during transcription. The function of pre-contextual revisions as revisions of form and concepts was ascertained in an empirical study, which also showed that 13-year-old writers revised more form and concepts at the point of inscription when they wrote in English as a foreign language (EFL) than in Swedish as a first language (L1).

In this thesis, a learning method, Peer-based intervention (PBI), is introduced and examined through case studies and statistical analysis. PBI is based on theories about cognitive capacity, noticing, individual-based learning and social interaction. In PBI, the keystroke-logging replay facility is used as a tool for reflection on and discussion of keystroke logged data, i.e. representations of cognitive processes active during writing. In the studies presented in this thesis, teen-aged and adult writers’ texts, written before and after PBI, were analysed according to text quality and revision. Descriptive and argumentative texts in both L1 and EFL were included in the studies. The results showed that PBI raised adult and teen-aged writers’ awareness of linguistic and extra-linguistic features, and that the effect varied across levels of learner ability, text type and language.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Moderna språk, Umeå universitet, 2005. 38 p.
Series
Skrifter från moderna språk, ISSN 1650-304X ; 18
Keyword
English language, writing, revision, keystroke logging, GIS, stimulated recall, precontextual revision, writing development, Peer-based intervention, language awareness, noticing, EFL, L1 Swedish, reflection, Engelska
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-534 (URN)91-7305-873-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-05-28, 10:00
Available from: 2005-05-10 Created: 2005-05-10 Last updated: 2015-01-16Bibliographically approved

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Lindgren, EvaSullivan, Kirk P. H.Lindgren, Urban
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Citation style
  • apa
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Output format
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