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Backset-stationary and during car driving.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. (Kirurgi)
2008 (English)In: Traffic injury prevention, ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 9, no 6, 568-573 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to measure and analyze backset, defined as the horizontal distance between the back of the occupant's head and a point located on the ventral/top aspect of the sewn rim of the head restraint, with the car stationary and during driving, in the driver's position in a modern car. METHODS: A population of 65 subjects, 35 males and 30 females, was studied in a Volvo V70 car, model year 2007. The subjects were studied in the driver's position, in a self-selected posture. Stationary backset was measured with the technique described by Jonsson et al. (2007) and backset during driving with video analysis. Descriptive data were calculated, and variability and correlation analyses were performed. A t-test was used to test differences of means. Significance level was set to 0.05. RESULTS: In comparison to stationary backset, mean backset during driving was 43 mm greater in males and 41 mm greater in females. Driving backset was 44 mm larger in males than in females. Driving backset was moderately correlated (0.37-0.43) to stature, seated height, and seat back angle in males and moderately correlated (0.44-0.52) to hip width, waist circumference, and weight in females. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for backset during driving was 0.81 (CI: 0.75-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: These results may be of use in designing future updates of test protocols/routines for geometric backset, such as RCAR and RCAR-IIWPG.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 9, no 6, 568-573 p.
Keyword [en]
Whiplash; Backset; Retraction; Posture; Driving; Stationary
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-18512DOI: 10.1080/15389580802308312PubMedID: 19058104OAI: diva2:160136
Available from: 2009-02-12 Created: 2009-02-12 Last updated: 2010-04-14
In thesis
1. Interaction between humans and car seats: studies of occupant seat adjustment, posture, position, and real world neck injuries in rear-end impacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction between humans and car seats: studies of occupant seat adjustment, posture, position, and real world neck injuries in rear-end impacts
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The latest generation of rear-end whiplash protection systems, as found in the WHIPS Volvo and SAHR Saab, have reduced injury rates by almost 50% in comparison with the previous generation of seat/head restraint systems. Occupant behaviour, such as seated posture and seat adjustment settings, may affect the injury risk. Method: Five studies were conducted. Studie I was an injury outcome study based on insurance data. Studies II-IV investigated seat adjustment, occupant backset, and cervical retraction for drivers and occupants in different postures and positions in the car, during stationary and driving conditions. Study V compared the occupant data from studies II and III with a vehicle testing tool, the BioRID dummy, using the protocols of the ISO, RCAR, and the RCAR-IIWPG.

Results: Female drivers and passengers had a threefold increased risk for medically-impairing neck injury in rear-end impacts, compared to males. Driver position had a double risk compared with front passenger seat position. Female drivers adjusted the driver seat differently to male drivers; they sat higher and closer to the steering wheel and with more upright back support. The volunteers also adjusted their seat differently to the ISO, RCAR, and RCAR-IIWPG protocol settings; both sexes sat further away from the steering wheel, and seat back angle was more upright then in the protocols. In stationary cars, backset was highest in the rear seat position and lowest in the front passenger seat position. Males had a larger backset than females. Cervical retraction decreased and backset increased for both sexes when posture changed from self-selected posture to a slouched posture. The BioRID II dummy was found to represent 96th percentile female in stature, and a 69th percentile female in weight in the volunteer group.

Conclusions: Risks in car rear-end impacts differ by sex and seated position. This thesis indicates the need for a 50th percentile female BioRID dummy and re-evaluation of the ISO, RCAR, and RCAR-IIWPG protocols, and further development of new safety systems to protect occupants in rear-end impacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, 2008. 39 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; ISSN 0346-6612-1163
Surgery, backset, Whiplash, rear-end impact, seated posture, seated position, bioRID, Kirurgi
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1636 (URN)978-91-7264-525-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-23, Sal D, Tandläkarhögskolan 9tr, Umeå Universitet, 901 85 Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Available from: 2008-05-05 Created: 2008-05-05 Last updated: 2009-05-04Bibliographically approved

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