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Regional and temporal differences in the associations between cardiovascular disease and its classic risk factors: an analysis of 49 cohorts from 11 European countries
Department of Public Health and Welfare, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, Finland.
Department of Public Health and Welfare, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, Finland.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2936-2895
Inserm, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France.
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2024 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 569-577Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: The regional and temporal differences in the associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its classic risk factors are unknown. The current study examined these associations in different European regions over a 30-year period.

Methods and results: The study sample comprised 553 818 individuals from 49 cohorts in 11 European countries (baseline: 1982-2012) who were followed up for a maximum of 10 years. Risk factors [sex, smoking, diabetes, non-HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI)] and CVD events (coronary heart disease or stroke) were harmonized across cohorts. Risk factor-outcome associations were analysed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, and differences in associations were assessed using meta-regression. The differences in the risk factor-CVD associations between central Europe, northern Europe, southern Europe, and the UK were generally small. Men had a slightly higher hazard ratio (HR) in southern Europe (P = 0.043 for overall difference), and those with diabetes had a slightly lower HR in central Europe (P = 0.022 for overall difference) compared with the other regions. Of the six CVD risk factors, minor HR decreases per decade were observed for non-HDL cholesterol [7% per mmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3-10%] and systolic BP (4% per 20 mmHg; 95% CI, 1-8%), while a minor HR increase per decade was observed for BMI (7% per 10 kg/m2; 95% CI, 1-13%).

Conclusion: The results demonstrate that all classic CVD risk factors are still relevant in Europe, irrespective of regional area. Preventive strategies should focus on risk factors with the greatest population attributable risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2024. Vol. 31, no 5, p. 569-577
Keywords [en]
Cardiovascular disease, Coronary heart disease, Europe, Risk factor, Stroke
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-223090DOI: 10.1093/eurjpc/zwad359ISI: 001117280000001PubMedID: 37976098Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85186508558OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-223090DiVA, id: diva2:1850878
Available from: 2024-04-11 Created: 2024-04-11 Last updated: 2024-04-11Bibliographically approved

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Oskarsson, ViktorSöderberg, Stefan

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