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Sulfation of corrosive alkali chlorides by ammonium sulfate in a biomass fired CFB boiler
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, SE-611 29 Nyköping, Sweden.
Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
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2007 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, Vol. 88, no 11-12, 1171-1177 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomass and waste derived fuels contain relatively high amounts of alkali and chlorine, but contain very little sulfur. Combustion of such fuels can result in increased deposit formation and superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced by using a sulfur containing additive, such as ammonium sulfate, which reacts with the alkali chlorides and forms less corrosive sulfates. Ammonium sulfate injection together with a so-called in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) is patented and known as "ChlorOut". IACM measures the concentrations of alkali chlorides (mainly KCl in biomass combustion) at superheater temperatures. Tests with and without spraying ammonium sulfate into the flue gases have been performed in a 96MW(th)/25MW(e) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The boiler was fired mainly with bark and a chlorine containing waste. KCl concentration was reduced from more than 15 ppm to approximately 2 ppm. during injection of ammonium sulfate. Corrosion probe measurements indicated that both deposit formation and material loss due to corrosion were decreased using the additive. Analysis of the deposits showed significantly higher concentration of sulfur and almost no chlorine in the case with ammonium sulfate. Results from impactor measurements supported that KCl was sulfated to potassium sulfate by the additive. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier Bv , 2007. Vol. 88, no 11-12, 1171-1177 p.
Keyword [en]
biomass combustion, high temperature corrosion, sulfation, kcl, chlorout, iacm, combustion
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-19737DOI: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2007.06.023ISBN: 0378-3820 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-19737DiVA: diva2:202460
Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2010-05-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aspects of alkali chloride chemistry on deposit formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects of alkali chloride chemistry on deposit formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Combustion of biomass and waste has several environmental, economical and political advantages over the use of fossil fuels for the generation of heat and electricity. However, these fuels often have a significantly different composition and the combustion is therefore associated with additional operational problems. A high content of chlorine and alkali metals (potassium and sodium) often causes problems with deposit formation and high temperature corrosion. Some different aspects of these issues are addressed in this thesis.

The overall objective of this thesis was to study and highlight different means by which operational problems related to alkali chlorides can be overcome, reduced or prevented.

The most important results of this thesis are: (1) A full description of the in-situ alkali chloride monitor, its operational principles, the calibration procedure, and an example of a full-scale application was made public in a scientific publication. (2) Efficient sulfation of gaseous alkali chlorides in a full-scale boiler was achieved by injecting ammonium sulfate in a water solution into the hot flue gas. (3) Reduced deposit growth and corrosion rates were achieved by lowering the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas by sulfation. (4) Evidence of decreased deposit growth and chlorine content in deposits during peat co-combustion. (5) Results are presented from high temperature corrosion tests with different superheater steels in two different combustion environments. (6) Controlled KCl and NaCl condensation under simulated combustion conditions resulted in deposits which consisted of mostly pure phases, in contrast to the solid solution that would be expected under the prevailing conditions at chemical equilibrium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, avdelningen energiteknik och termisk processkemi, 2010. 45 p.
Series
ETPC Report, ISSN 1653-0551 ; 10-04
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics; Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-33667 (URN)978-91-7459-009-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-06-01, Naturvetarhuset, M450, Umeå University, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-05-07 Created: 2010-04-30 Last updated: 2010-05-07Bibliographically approved

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Broström, MarkusBackman, RainerNordin, Anders

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