umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Principle, calibration, and application of the in situ alkali chloride monitor
Vattenfall AB Nordic Heat, S-162 87 Stockholm, Sweden .
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
Vattenfall Research and Development AB, S-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
Show others and affiliations
2009 (English)In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 80, no 2, 023104-1-023104-4 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 The extended use of biomass for heat and power production has caused increased operational problems with fouling and high-temperature corrosion in boilers. These problems are mainly related to the presence of alkali chlorides (KCl and NaCl) at high concentrations in the flue gas. The In-Situ Alkali Chloride Monitor (IACM) was developed by Vattenfall Research and Development AB for measuring the alkali chloride concentration in hot flue gases (>650 oC). The measurement technique is based on molecular differential absorption spectroscopy in the UV range. Simultaneous measurement of SO2 concentration is also possible. The measuring range is 1-50 ppm for the sum of KCl and NaCl concentrations, and 4-750 ppm for SO2. This paper describes the principle of the IACM as well as its calibration. Furthermore, an example of its application in an industrial boiler is given.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics , 2009. Vol. 80, no 2, 023104-1-023104-4 p.
Keyword [en]
bioenergy conversion, boilers, corrosion, flue gases, gas sensors, ultraviolet spectra
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-19738DOI: 10.1063/1.3081015OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-19738DiVA: diva2:202469
Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aspects of alkali chloride chemistry on deposit formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects of alkali chloride chemistry on deposit formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Combustion of biomass and waste has several environmental, economical and political advantages over the use of fossil fuels for the generation of heat and electricity. However, these fuels often have a significantly different composition and the combustion is therefore associated with additional operational problems. A high content of chlorine and alkali metals (potassium and sodium) often causes problems with deposit formation and high temperature corrosion. Some different aspects of these issues are addressed in this thesis.

The overall objective of this thesis was to study and highlight different means by which operational problems related to alkali chlorides can be overcome, reduced or prevented.

The most important results of this thesis are: (1) A full description of the in-situ alkali chloride monitor, its operational principles, the calibration procedure, and an example of a full-scale application was made public in a scientific publication. (2) Efficient sulfation of gaseous alkali chlorides in a full-scale boiler was achieved by injecting ammonium sulfate in a water solution into the hot flue gas. (3) Reduced deposit growth and corrosion rates were achieved by lowering the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas by sulfation. (4) Evidence of decreased deposit growth and chlorine content in deposits during peat co-combustion. (5) Results are presented from high temperature corrosion tests with different superheater steels in two different combustion environments. (6) Controlled KCl and NaCl condensation under simulated combustion conditions resulted in deposits which consisted of mostly pure phases, in contrast to the solid solution that would be expected under the prevailing conditions at chemical equilibrium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, avdelningen energiteknik och termisk processkemi, 2010. 45 p.
Series
ETPC Report, ISSN 1653-0551 ; 10-04
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics; Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-33667 (URN)978-91-7459-009-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-06-01, Naturvetarhuset, M450, Umeå University, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-05-07 Created: 2010-04-30 Last updated: 2010-05-07Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full texthttp://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/80/023104/1

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Broström, MarkusBackman, Rainer
By organisation
Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry
In the same journal
Review of Scientific Instruments

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 281 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf