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Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca travelling from Africato breed in Europe: differential effects of winter andmigration conditions on breeding date
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2006 (English)In: Ardea, ISSN 0373-2266, Vol. 94, no 3, 511-525 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In most bird species there is only a short time window available for optimalbreeding due to variation in ecological conditions in a seasonalenvironment. Long-distance migrants must travel before they startbreeding, and conditions at the wintering grounds and during migrationmay affect travelling speed and hence arrival and breeding dates. Theseeffects are to a large extent determined by climate variables such asrainfall and temperature, and need to be identified to predict how wellspecies can adapt to climate change. In this paper we analyse effects ofvegetation growth on the wintering grounds and sites en route on theannual timing of breeding of 17 populations of Pied Flycatchers Ficedulahypoleuca studied between 1982–2000. Timing of breeding was largelycorrelated with local spring temperatures, supplemented by strikingeffects of African vegetation and NAO. Populations differed in the effectsof vegetation growth on the wintering grounds, and on their northernAfrican staging grounds, as well as ecological conditions in Europe asmeasured by the winter NAO. In general, early breeding populations(low altitude, western European populations) bred earlier in years withmore vegetation in the Northern Sahel zone, as well as in NorthernAfrica. In contrast, late breeding populations (high altitude and northernand eastern populations) advanced their breeding dates when circumstancesin Europe were more advanced (high NAO). Thus, timing ofbreeding in most Pied Flycatcher populations not only depends uponlocal circumstances, but also on conditions encountered during travelling,and these effects differ across populations dependent on the timingof travelling and breeding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 94, no 3, 511-525 p.
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-20375OAI: diva2:208520
Available from: 2009-03-18 Created: 2009-03-18

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Nyholm, N. Erik I.
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Ecology and Environmental Science
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