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A unique program for cell death in xylem fibers of Populus stem
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6959-3284
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5350-4219
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
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2009 (English)In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 58, no 2, 260-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Maturation of the xylem elements involves extensive deposition of secondary cell-wall material and autolytic processes resulting in cell death. We describe here a unique type of cell-death program in xylem fibers of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) stems, including gradual degradative processes in both the nucleus and cytoplasm concurrently with the phase of active cell-wall deposition. Nuclear DNA integrity, as determined by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) and Comet (single-cell gel electrophoresis) assays, was compromised early during fiber maturation. In addition, degradation of the cytoplasmic contents, as detected by electron microscopy of samples fixed by high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution (HPF-FS), was gradual and resulted in complete loss of the cytoplasmic contents well before the loss of vacuolar integrity, which is considered to be the moment of death. This type of cell death differs significantly from that seen in xylem vessels. The loss of vacuolar integrity, which is thought to initiate cell degradative processes in the xylem vessels, is one of the last processes to occur before the final autolysis of the remaining cell contents in xylem fibers. High-resolution microarray analysis in the vascular tissues of Populus stem, combined with in silico analysis of publicly available data repositories, suggests the involvement of several previously uncharacterized transcription factors, ethylene, sphingolipids and light signaling as well as autophagy in the control of fiber cell death.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 58, no 2, 260-274 p.
Keyword [en]
autophagy, DNA degradation, in silico transcriptional analysis, Populus, programmed cell death, xylem fiber development
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22104DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03777.xISI: 000265040700007PubMedID: 19175765OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-22104DiVA: diva2:212695
Note

Även med namnet Moreau-Courtois, Charleen L. samt Moreau, Charleen.

Available from: 2009-04-23 Created: 2009-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Programmed Cell Death in Xylem Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Programmed Cell Death in Xylem Development
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Concerns about climate changes and scarcity of fossil fuels are rising. Hence wood is becoming an attractive source of renewable energy and raw material and these new dimensions have prompted increasing interest in wood formation in trees, in both the scientific community and wider public. In this thesis, the focus is on a key process in wood development: programmed cell death (PCD) in the development of xylem elements. Since secondary cell wall formation is dependent, inter alia, upon the life time of xylem elements, the qualitative features of wood will be affected by PCD in xylem, about which there is little information.

This thesis focuses on the anatomical, morphological and transcriptional features of PCD during xylem development in both the stem of hybrid aspen, Populus tremula (L.) x tremuloides (Michx.) and the hypocotyl of the herbaceous model system Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh.). In Populus, the progressive removal of organelles from the cytoplasm before the time of death (vacuolar bursts) and the slowness of the cell death process, illustrated by DNA fragmentation assays (such as TUNEL and Comet assays), have been ascertained in the xylem fibres by microscopic analyses. Furthermore, candidate genes for the regulation of fibre cell death were identified either from a Populus EST library obtained from woody tissues undergoing fibre cell death or from microarray experiments in Populus stem, and further assessed in an in silico comparative transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana. These candidate genes were either putative novel regulators of fibre cell death or members of previously described families of cell death-related genes, such as autophagy-related genes. The induction of the latter and the previous microscopic observations suggest the importance of autophagy in the degradation of the cytoplasmic contents specifically in the xylem fibres. Vacuolar bursts in the vessels were the only previously described triggers of PCD in the xylem, which induce the very rapid degradation of the nuclei and surrounding cytoplasmic contents, therefore unravelling a unique previously unrecorded type of PCD in the xylem fibres, principally involving autophagy. Arabidopsis is an attractive alternative model plant for exploring some aspects of wood formation, such as the characterisation of negative regulators of PCD. Therefore, the anatomy of Arabidopsis hypocotyls was also investigated and the ACAULIS5 (ACL5) gene, encoding an enzyme involved in polyamine biosynthesis, was identified as a key regulator of xylem specification, specifically in the vessel elements, though its negative effect on the cell death process.

Taken together, PCD in xylem development seems to be a highly specific process, involving unique cell death morphology and molecular machinery. In addition, the technical challenges posed by the complexity of the woody tissues examined highlighted the need for specific methods for assessing PCD and related phenomena in wood.

Abstract [sv]

Oron för klimatförändringar och brist på fossila bränslen har ökat påtagligt under de senaste åren. De enorma möjligheter som skogsråvaran erbjuder som alternativ källa för förnyelsebar energi och råmaterial har väckt ett stort intresse också för den biologiska processen bakom vedbildning i träd. Denna avhandling fokuserar på en viktig process i vedbildning: programmerad celldöd (PCD) i xylemet. Xylemcellernas livstid påverkar bildningen av sekundära cellväggar, vilket i sin tur påverkar vedens kvalitativa egenskaperna, så som veddensitet. Trots dess betydelse för viktiga egenskaper hos vedråvaran existerar fortfarande väldigt lite information om xylem PCD på cellulär eller molekylär nivå.

I den här avhandlingen belyses de anatomiska, morfologiska och genetiska aspekterna av PCD i xylemutveckling i både stam av hybridasp, Populus tremula (L.) x tremuloides (Michx.) och hypokotyl av det örtartade modellsystemet Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh.). Xylemet i både Populus och Arabidopsis består av två olika celltyper; de vattentransporterade kärlen och de stödjande fibrerna. Det är känt att celldöd i kärlen pågår mycket snabbt efter att den centrala vakuolen brister och de hydrolytiska enzymer släpps in i cytoplasman. I den här avhandlingen ligger fokus på fibrerna i Populus xylemet. Med hjälp av mikroskopianalyser av cellmorfologin (elektronmikroskopi) och DNA-fragmentering i cellkärnan (TUNEL- och Comet-analyser) kunde vi konstatera att till skillnad från kärlen så uppvisar fibrerna en långsam och progressiv nedbrytning av organellerna och cellkärnans DNA före vakuolbristning. Dessutom har kandidatgener för reglering av fibercelldöd identifierats antingen från ett Populus EST bibliotek från vedartade vävnader som genomgår fibercelldöd eller från mikroarray experiment i Populus stam. Dessa kandidatgener är antingen potentiella nya regulatorer av fibercelldöd eller medlemmar av tidigare beskrivna familjer av celldödsrelaterade gener. Bland de sistnämnda finns autofagi-relaterade gener, vilket stöder funktionen av autofagi i samband med autolys av cellinnehållet i xylemfibrerna. Dessa studier pekar därför på en typ av PCD som har inte tidigare beskrivits för xylemet. Arabidopsis är ett alternativt växtmodellsystem för studier av vissa aspekter av vedbildningen, såsom karakteriseringen av negativa regulatorer av PCD. Därför har också hypokotylanatomin analyserats, och ACAULIS5 (ACL5) genen, som kodar för ett enzym i biosyntesen av polyaminer, har visats vara en viktig regulator av xylemspecifikation genom dess negativa effekt på kärlens celldöd.

Sammantaget visar denna avhandling att PCD i xylemutvecklingen verkar involvera unika morfologiska och molekylära mekanismer. Vi visar dessutom att komplexiteten hos de vedartade vävnaderna leder till ett behov av bättre anpassade verktyg för att djupare kunna bedöma PCD och liknande fenomen i veden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Plant Physiology Department - Umeå Plant Science Centre, 2008. 58 p.
Keyword
PCD (Programmed Cell Death), Xylem, Apoptosis, Autophagy, Secondary Cell Walls, Microscopy, Microarrays, Comet Assay, TUNEL Assay
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1831 (URN)978-91-7264-640-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-10, KB3B1, KBC-Huset, floor 3, Umeå University, Umeå - Sweden, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Även med namnet Moreau-Courtois, Charleen L. samt Moreau, Charleen.Available from: 2008-09-19 Created: 2008-09-18 Last updated: 2009-06-22Bibliographically approved
2. Significance of hydrolytic enzymes expressed during xylem cell death
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Significance of hydrolytic enzymes expressed during xylem cell death
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Betydelsen av hydrolytiska enzymer uttryckta under xylemcelldöd
Abstract [en]

Xylem is an inherent feature of all vascular plants and functions in water transport and mechanical support. In order to efficiently transport water, xylem cells are reinforced by secondary walls before they undergo programmed cell death and their cell contents are removed by autolysis to create a hollow tube. During their differentiation, xylem cells express various hydrolytic enzymes, such as proteases, nucleases and lipases, but only in a few examples has their role in xylem cell death been characterized. This thesis focuses on the regulatory aspects of xylem cell death and the autolytic cell clearance in vessel elements and fibers of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x tremuloides Michx.) and in vessel elements of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using comparative transcriptomic analysis, candidate genes for fiber-specific cell death processes were identified. Further, a hypothesis is presented on the regulation of thermospermine levels in the vasculature by a negative feedback-loop involving auxin and the class III Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper (HD-ZIP III) transcription factor HOMEOBOX8 (PtHB8). The role of the Arabidopsis METACASPASE9 (AtMC9) in xylem cell death was characterized using molecular tools, such as reporter lines and fluorescent fusion proteins, and electron microscopy (TEM). This showed that cell death initiation is not controlled by AtMC9. Instead, evidence is presented for the involvement of AtMC9 in the post mortem autolysis of vessel elements that follows tonoplast rupture and leads to the formation of the hollow conduit. Cell death-associated genes were further observed to be expressed during the emergence of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana. This led to the discovery that cells overlying a lateral root primordium undergo cell death, which was demonstrated by detection of DNA degradation and TEM analysis. It is concluded that cell death facilitates emergence of lateral roots through the overlying tissues in a concerted manner with cell wall remodelling. Together, these findings show that although individual hydrolytic enzymes may be dispensable for plant growth and development, their common regulators are the tool for understanding their function and importance.

Abstract [sv]

Xylem är en karakteristisk vävnad i alla kärlväxter som leder vatten och mineraler samt har mekanisk stödfunktion. För att effektivt kunna transportera vatten förstärks xylemceller med sekundära cellväggar innan de dör genom programmerad celldöd. Deras cellinnehåll bryts ner genom autolys för att skapa ett ihåligt rör. Xylemceller uttrycker under sin differentiering olika hydrolytiska enzymer, såsom proteaser, lipaser och nukleaser, men bara för ett fåtal av dessa har funktionen under xylemcelldöd kartlagts. Denna avhandling fokuserar på reglering av xylemcelldöden och den autolytiska nedbrytningen av cellen, i såväl kärlelement och fibrer av hybridasp (Populus tremula L. x tremuloides Michx.) som i kärlelement av backtrav (Arabidopsis thaliana). Med hjälp av jämförande transkriptomanalys identifierades kandidatgener för fiber-specifika celldödsprocesser i hybridasp. Vidare utvecklades en hypotes om reglering av termosperminnivåer i vaskulaturen genom en negativ feedback-loop, som omfattar auxin reglering och klass III homeodomän-leucinzipper (HD-ZIP III) transkriptionsfaktorn HOMEOBOX8 (PtHB8). Funktionen av Arabidopsis METACASPASE9 (AtMC9) under xylemcelldöd karakteriserades med molekylära verktyg, såsom reporterlinjer och fluorescerande fusionsproteiner och elektronmikroskopi (TEM). Dessa analyser visade att celldödens initiering inte styrs av AtMC9. Istället presenteras bevis för en roll av AtMC9 i autolysen av kärlelement som sker post mortem efter att vakuolen har gått sönder och som slutför bildandet av det tomma kärlet. Genuttryck som associeras med celldöd observerades också under utvecklingen av laterala rötter i Arabidopsis thaliana. Detta ledde till upptäckten att celler som ligger ovanför ett lateralrotprimordium dör en programmerad celldöd och visar tecken på DNA-nedbrytning och autolys i TEM-analyser. Slutsatsen av denna studie är att celldöd i samspel med cellväggsmodifiering underlättar utväxten av laterala rötter genom de överliggande cellagren. Sammantaget tyder dessa upptäckter på att även om enstaka hydrolyserande enzymer inte är nödvändiga för växternas tillväxt och utveckling, så kan deras gemensamma reglering nyttjas för att förstå deras funktion och betydelse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2013. 49 p.
Keyword
Arabidopsis, Populus, xylem cell death, metacaspase, fiber, lateral root emergence
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Molecular Biology; Physiological Botany; Molecular Cellbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-81340 (URN)978-91-7459-739-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-08, Hörsal F, Humanisthuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-07 Last updated: 2015-04-29Bibliographically approved

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Courtois-Moreau, Charleen LPesquet, EdouardSjödin, AndreasMuñiz, LuisBollhöner, BenjaminJansson, StefanTuominen, Hannele
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