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Seat adjustment: capacity and repeatability among occupants in a modern car
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
2008 (English)In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 51, no 2, 232-241 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Families in the Western world have a car and several family members share the same car. In this study, 154 participants have adjusted a driver's seat three times. The primary objective was to study intrapersonal repeatability and intraclass correlation (ICC) on seat; length adjustment, backrest angle, seat front edge and seat rear edge adjustment, related to participant age, sex, stature and weight. Length adjustment has the best intrapersonal repeatability within two repetitions, 49 mm and ICC-value 0.87. Females and younger participants (age < 40 years) adjust seats generally more accurately. Females adjust the seat 41 mm more forward, 120 mm compared to men 79 mm counted from 0-starting position. Females sit with more upright seat backrests, 46 degree compared to 43 degrees for males counted from 0-starting position. Females sit higher than males in both the frontal and rear part of the seat cushion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2008. Vol. 51, no 2, 232-241 p.
Keyword [en]
car, seat, adjustment, sex, age, length
National Category
Medical Ergonomics Engineering and Technology Applied Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22162DOI: 10.1080/00140130701561793ISI: 000253314700009PubMedID: 17896222OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-22162DiVA: diva2:212925
Available from: 2009-04-24 Created: 2009-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Interaction between humans and car seats: studies of occupant seat adjustment, posture, position, and real world neck injuries in rear-end impacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction between humans and car seats: studies of occupant seat adjustment, posture, position, and real world neck injuries in rear-end impacts
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The latest generation of rear-end whiplash protection systems, as found in the WHIPS Volvo and SAHR Saab, have reduced injury rates by almost 50% in comparison with the previous generation of seat/head restraint systems. Occupant behaviour, such as seated posture and seat adjustment settings, may affect the injury risk. Method: Five studies were conducted. Studie I was an injury outcome study based on insurance data. Studies II-IV investigated seat adjustment, occupant backset, and cervical retraction for drivers and occupants in different postures and positions in the car, during stationary and driving conditions. Study V compared the occupant data from studies II and III with a vehicle testing tool, the BioRID dummy, using the protocols of the ISO, RCAR, and the RCAR-IIWPG.

Results: Female drivers and passengers had a threefold increased risk for medically-impairing neck injury in rear-end impacts, compared to males. Driver position had a double risk compared with front passenger seat position. Female drivers adjusted the driver seat differently to male drivers; they sat higher and closer to the steering wheel and with more upright back support. The volunteers also adjusted their seat differently to the ISO, RCAR, and RCAR-IIWPG protocol settings; both sexes sat further away from the steering wheel, and seat back angle was more upright then in the protocols. In stationary cars, backset was highest in the rear seat position and lowest in the front passenger seat position. Males had a larger backset than females. Cervical retraction decreased and backset increased for both sexes when posture changed from self-selected posture to a slouched posture. The BioRID II dummy was found to represent 96th percentile female in stature, and a 69th percentile female in weight in the volunteer group.

Conclusions: Risks in car rear-end impacts differ by sex and seated position. This thesis indicates the need for a 50th percentile female BioRID dummy and re-evaluation of the ISO, RCAR, and RCAR-IIWPG protocols, and further development of new safety systems to protect occupants in rear-end impacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, 2008. 39 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; ISSN 0346-6612-1163
Keyword
Surgery, backset, Whiplash, rear-end impact, seated posture, seated position, bioRID, Kirurgi
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1636 (URN)978-91-7264-525-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-23, Sal D, Tandläkarhögskolan 9tr, Umeå Universitet, 901 85 Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-05-05 Created: 2008-05-05 Last updated: 2009-05-04Bibliographically approved

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