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Spatial variation in concentrations and patterns of the PCDD/F and dioxin-like-PCB content in herring from the northern Baltic Sea
Contaminant Research Group, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
Contaminant Research Group, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2007 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 9, no 6, 550-556 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the current study was to investigate spatial and seasonal variation of dioxin and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB) content in herring sampled along the northern Baltic Sea coast and map out risk zones for dioxins and dl-PCBs. We further aimed to investigate relationships between congener distribution (pattern) and sampling location and season. The results showed that there were distinct geographical differences in concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans and dl-PCBs along the Swedish coast, from the Bothnian Bay to north Baltic Proper, with the highest levels detected in the southern Bothnian Sea. The majority of the locations showed concentrations above the prescribed maximum for dioxin residues (4 TEQ pg g–1 wet weight [w.w.]). If all the edible parts of the fish (muscle, subcutaneous fat and skin) are considered, the estimated concentrations exceeded the prescribed maximum level in the whole study area for herring collected during spring–summer. Concentrations in herring caught during spring–summer compared to concentrations in herring sampled in the autumn indicated seasonal variation. The pattern analysis showed a variation in relative congener concentration at the different sampling locations (spring–summer). Pattern differences were also noticed between seasons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry , 2007. Vol. 9, no 6, 550-556 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22264DOI: 10.1039/b700667eOAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-22264DiVA: diva2:214176
Available from: 2009-05-04 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2011-03-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sources of dioxins and other POPs to the marine environment: Identification and apportionment using pattern analysis and receptor modeling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources of dioxins and other POPs to the marine environment: Identification and apportionment using pattern analysis and receptor modeling
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the studies underlying this thesis, various source tracing techniques were applied to environmental samples from the Baltic region.

Comprehensive sampling and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surface sediments in Swedish coastal and offshore areas resulted in a unique data set for this region. Nearly 150 samples of surface sediments were analyzed for all tetra- to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs. The levels showed large spatial variability with hotspots in several coastal regions. Neither Sweden nor the EU has introduced guideline values for PCDD/Fs in sediment, but comparisons to available guidelines and quality standards from other countries indicate that large areas of primarily coastal sediments may constitute a risk to marine organisms.

Multivariate pattern analysis techniques and receptor models, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), were used to trace sources. These analyses suggested that three to six source types can explain most of the observed pattern variations found in the sediment samples. Atmospheric deposition was suggested as the most important source to offshore areas, thus confirming earlier estimates. However, spatial differences indicated a larger fraction of local/regional atmospheric sources, characterized by PCDFs, in the south. This was indicated by the identification of several patterns of atmospheric origin. In coastal areas, the influence of direct emission sources was larger, and among these, chlorophenol used for wood preservation and emissions from pulp/paper production and other wood related industry appeared to be most important. The historic emissions connected to processes involving chemical reactions with chlorine (e.g. pulp bleaching) were found to be of less importance except at some coastal sites.

The analysis of PCDD/Fs in Baltic herring also revealed spatial variations in the levels and pollution patterns along the coast. The geographical match against areas with elevated sediment levels indicated that transfer from sediments via water to organisms was one possible explanation.

Fugacity, a concept used to predict the net transport direction between environmental matrices, was used to explore the gas exchange of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between air and water. These estimates suggested that, in the Kattegat Sea, the gaseous exchange of HCHs primarily resulted in net deposition while PCBs were net volatilized under certain environmental conditions. The study also indicated that, while the air concentrations of both PCBs and γ-HCH are mostly dependent upon the origin of the air mass, the fluctuations in α-HCH were primarily influenced by seasonal changes.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2009. 69 p.
Keyword
air-water gas exchange, chiral, congener pattern, enantiomer, enantiomeric fraction, fugacity, HCH, hexachlorocyclohexane, homologue profile, indicator congener, isomer pattern, pattern analysis, PCA, PCB, PCDD/F, PMF, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyl, positive matrix factorization, principal component analysis, receptor modeling, source apportioning, source, source tracing
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22266 (URN)978-91-7264-792-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-05-29, KB3B1, KBC-huset, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-08 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2009-05-08Bibliographically approved

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Sundqvist, KristinaWiberg, Karin

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