Evaluation of the Doppler technique for fat emboli detection in an experimental flow model
2008 (English)In: The Journal of extra-corporeal technology, ISSN 0022-1058, Vol. 40, no 3, 175-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Pericardial suction blood (PSB) is known to be contaminated with fat droplets, which may cause embolic brain damage during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study aimed to investigate the possibility to detect fat emboli by a Doppler technique. An in vitro flow model was designed, with a main pump, a filter, a reservoir, and an injector. A Hatteland Doppler probe was attached to the circulation loop to monitor particle counts and their size distribution. Suspended soya oil or heat-extracted human wound fat was analyzed in the model. The concentrations of these fat emboli were calibrated to simulate clinical conditions with either a continuous return of PSB to the systemic circulation or when PSB was collected for rapid infusion at CPB weaning. For validation purpose, air and solid emboli were also analyzed. Digital image analysis was performed to characterize the nature of the tested emboli. With soya suspension, there was an apparent dose response between Doppler counts and the nominal fat concentration. This pattern was seen for computed Doppler output (p = .037) but not for Doppler raw counts (p = .434). No correlation was seen when human fat suspensions were tested. Conversely, the image analysis showed an obvious relationship between microscopy particle count and the nominal fat concentration (p < .001). However, the scatter plot between image analysis counting and Doppler recordings showed a random distribution (p = .873). It was evident that the Doppler heavily underestimated the true number of injected fat emboli. When the image analysis data were subdivided into diameter intervals, it was discovered that the few large-size droplets accounted for a majority of total fat volume compared with the numerous small-size particles (< 10 microm). Our findings strongly suggest that the echogenecity of fat droplets is insufficient for detection by means of the tested Doppler method.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Extra-Corporeal Technology, Inc. , 2008. Vol. 40, no 3, 175-183 p.
Brain damage, Cardiopulmonary bypass, Doppler, Fat emboli
Other Medical Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22356PubMedID: 18853829OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-22356DiVA: diva2:214651