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Accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexabromobenzene and 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH) in earthworm (Eisenia fetida): effects of soil type and ageing
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
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2010 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 23, 9189-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study the accumulation potentials in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) of selected brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were investigated. The tested BFRs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobenzene (HBB),and1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), were found to be bioavailable to Eisenia fetida, and they accumulated in the earthworms. To our knowledge, this is the first published study to address the bioaccumulation potential of TBECH in terrestrial biota. Aging the soil resulted in decreased accumulation of TBECH, HBB, and PBDEs with six or less bromine atoms. However, no effect of soil aging was seen for BDEs 183 or 209, possibly due to their low mobility in soil. The use of different soils (artificial OECD soil and two natural Swedish soils) also affected the degree of accumulation in the worms. The results indicate that use of the generally accepted standard OECD soil may overestimate accumulation of organic contaminants by earthworms, due to high bioavailability of the contaminants and/or weight loss of the worms in it. Further, the accumulation of selected PBDEs and HBB was compared to the accumulation of their chlorinated analogues. Brominated compounds accumulated to the same or a lesser extent than their chlorinated counterparts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 44, no 23, 9189-94 p.
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22527DOI: 10.1021/es1023288ISI: 000284523400064PubMedID: 21028802OAI: diva2:216808
Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2010-12-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of selected brominated flame retardants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of selected brominated flame retardants
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are chemicals used in e.g. electronic equipment, textiles and plastics for the prevention of fire. Over recent decades, concern has been raised regarding some heavily used BFRs, since the levels in the environment have been increasing. In the present thesis, persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) properties were studied for a structurally varied set of BFRs selected to represent more than 60 organic BFRs. The studied BFRs include: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE  183), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A 2-hydroxyethyl ether (TBBPA OHEE), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (246BrPh), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), and hexabromobenzene (HxBrBz).

It is likely that soil will act as a sink for BFRs. Therefore, studies of BFRs were performed on persistence in soil, and on bioaccumulation from soil in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Large variation in the biodegradability in soil among the tested BFRs was observed. The studied brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE 28 and BDE 209) were very persistent under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, while 246BrPh and TBECH degraded quickly in both aerobic and anaerobic soil. The bioaccumulation in earthworm from soil was high for HxBrBz, TBECH and for tested brominated diphenyl ethers with 4-6 bromine atoms (BDE 47, BDE 99, and BDE 153). Bioaccumulation was also studied in zebrafish after dietary exposure to a mixture of BFRs. It was shown that several metabolites were formed and retained in zebrafish, which highlights the importance of also searching for and identifying persistent degradation products. Maternal transfer was shown for all BFRs present in the female zebrafish. This shows that zebrafish young (fry) are exposed to these BFRs at approximately the same concentrations as female zebrafish during the early-life stages, when fish are usually most sensitive to organic contaminants. Toxicity of individual BFRs and a BFR mixture was studied in Nitocra spinipes using a silica gel-based system. Highest toxicities were observed for BDE 28, TBBPA, and TBBPA OHEE. In the mixture toxicity study, simultaneous exposure to low concentrations (individually causing no significant effect) of six BFRs significantly affected the survival of Nitocra spinipes. The results from the PBT studies presented in the thesis and literature data were compared with the criteria for PBT classification, as set in the European REACH legislation. Further, some BFRs with physico-chemical properties similar to those of identified PBTs were suggested to be prioritized for future PBT testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Print & Media, 2009. 57 p.
persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, biodegradation, biotransformation, PBT, read across, soil, earthworm, zebrafish, copepod, BFRs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, hexabromobenzene, 2, 4, 6-tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, 2-hydroxyethyl ether, 1, 2-dibromo-4-(1, 2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane
National Category
Environmental Sciences
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22528 (URN)978-91-7264-805-0 (ISBN)
Kemiska institutionen, 90187, Umeå
Public defence
2009-06-05, MA121, MIT-huset, Umeå Universistet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-05-15 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2014-03-10Bibliographically approved

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Rattfelt Nyholm, JennyAndersson, Patrik L
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