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Exemplar-based inference in multi-attribute decision making: contingent, not automatic, strategy shifts?
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Department of Psychology, Uppsala University.
Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition Max Planck Institute for Human Development.
2008 (English)In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 3, no 3, 244-260 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several studies propose that exemplar retrieval contributes to multi-attribute decisions. The authors have proposed a process theory enabling a priori predictions of what cognitive representations people use as input to their judgment process (Sigma, for “summation”; P. Juslin, L. Karlsson, & H. Olsson, 2008). According to Sigma, exemplar retrieval is a back-up system when the task does not allow for additive and linear abstraction and integration of cue-criterion knowledge (e.g., when the task is non-additive). An important question is to what extent such shifts occur spontaneously as part of automatic procedures, such as error-minimization with the Delta rule, or if they are controlled strategy shifts contingent on the ability to identify a sufficiently successful judgment strategy. In this article data are reviewed thatdemonstrate a shift between exemplar memory and cue abstraction, as well as data where the expected shift does not occur. In contrast to a common assumption of previous models, these results suggest a controlled and contingent strategy shift.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 3, no 3, 244-260 p.
Keyword [en]
exemplar memory, cue abstraction, strategy shifts, multi-attribute decisions, Sigma
National Category
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-23012OAI: diva2:219060
Available from: 2009-05-26 Created: 2009-05-26 Last updated: 2009-11-06
In thesis
1. A Division-of-Labor Hypothesis: Adaptations to Task Structure in Multiple-Cue Judgment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Division-of-Labor Hypothesis: Adaptations to Task Structure in Multiple-Cue Judgment
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Judgments that demand consideration of pieces of information in the environment occur repeatedly throughout our lives. One professional example is that of a physician that considers multiple symptoms to make a judgment about a patient’s disease. The scientific study of such, so called, multiple-cue judgments that involve multiple pieces of information (cues: e.g., symptoms) and continuous criterion (e.g., blood pressure) has been concerned with the statistical modelling of judgment data (see Brehmer, 1994; Cooksey, 1996; Hammond & Stewart, 2001). In this thesis behavioural experiments, cognitive modelling and brain imaging is used to investigate an adaptive division of labor between multiple memory representations in multiple-cue judgment. It is hypothesized that the additive, independent linear effect of each cue can be explicitly abstracted and integrated by a serial, additive judgment process (Einhorn, Kleinmuntz, & Kleinmuntz, 1979). It is further hypothesized that a variety of sophisticated task properties, like non-additive cue combination, nonlinear relations, and inter-cue correlation, are carried implicitly by exemplar-memory (Medin & Schaffer, 1978; Nosofsky, 1984; Nosofsky & Johansen, 2000). Study I and II investigates the effect of additive versus non-additive cue-combination and verify the predicted shift in cognitive representations as a function of the underlying cue-combination rule. The third study is a review that discusses the nature of these representational shifts; are they contingent upon early perceived learning performance instead of automatic and error-driven? Study IV verifies that this shift is evident also in the neural activity associated with making judgments in additive and non-additive tasks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Psykologi, 2007. 76 p.
Umeå studies in cognitive science, ISSN 1654-2568 ; 1654-2568 3
multiple-cue judgment, exemplar models, cue abstraction, cue-combination rule
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1327 (URN)978-91-7264-390-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-09-21, Bt102, Beteendevetarhuset, 901 87, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2009-11-06Bibliographically approved

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