Landscape variations in stream water SO4 and d34S-SO4 in a boreal stream network
2009 (English)In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, Vol. 73, 4648-4660 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Despite reduced anthropogenic deposition during the last decades, deposition sulphate may still play an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of S and many catchments may act as net sources of S that may remain for several decades. The aim of this study is to elucidate the temporal and spatial dynamics of both SO42− and δ34SSO4 in stream water from catchments with varying percentage of wetland and forest coverage and to determine their relative importance for catchment losses of S. Stream water samples were collected from 15 subcatchments ranging in size from 3 to 6780 ha, in a boreal stream network, northern Sweden. In forested catchments (<2% wetland cover) S–SO42− concentrations in stream water averaged 1.7 mg L−1 whereas in wetland dominated catchments (>30% wetland cover) the concentrations averaged 0.3 mg L−1. A significant negative relationship was observed between S–SO42− and percentage wetland coverage (r2 = 0.77, p < 0.001) and the annual export of stream water SO42− and wetland coverage (r2 = 0.76, p < 0.001). The percentage forest coverage was on the other hand positively related to stream water SO42− concentrations and the annual export of stream water SO42− (r2 = 0.77 and r2 = 0.79, respectively). The annual average δ34SSO4 value in wetland dominated streams was +7.6‰ and in streams of forested catchments +6.7‰. At spring flood the δ34SSO4 values decreased in all streams by 1‰ to 5‰. The δ34SSO4 values in all streams were higher than the δ34SSO4 value of +4.7‰ in precipitation (snow). The export of S ranged from 0.5 kg S ha−1 yr−1 (wetland headwater stream) to 3.8 kg S ha−1 yr−1 (forested headwater stream). With an average S deposition in open field of 1.3 kg S ha−1 yr−1 (2002–2006) the mass balance results in a net export of S from all catchments, except in catchments with >30% wetland. The high temporal and spatial resolution of this study demonstrates that the reducing environments of wetlands play a key role for the biogeochemistry of S in boreal landscapes and are net sinks of S. Forested areas, on the other hand were net sources of S.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 73, 4648-4660 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-25843DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2009.05.052OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-25843DiVA: diva2:234292