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Developing and validating self-report instruments: assessing perceived driver competence
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this thesis was to develop and validate a self-report instrument for perceived driver competence. The thesis includes six papers and a summary. All papers focus on perceived driver competence from a measurement perspective; that is, how to develop an instrument for perceived driver competence and how to use and interpret the scores from the instrument in a reliable and valid manner.

Study I reviews how perceived driver competence has been measured in other studies and discusses these methods from a measurement perspective. Most studies have examined perceived driver competence by asking drivers to compare their own skill to that of the average driver. That method is problematic, since it is not possible to determine if drivers are overconfident or not, when empirical information of their own skills is missing. In order to examine if drivers overestimate their skills or not, perceived driver competence should be compared with actual driving performance.

Study II reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of a self-report instrument for perceived driver competence - the Self-Efficacy Scale for Driver Competence (SSDC). The findings provides support for construct validity, as the SSDC demonstrated sound psychometric properties and as the internal structure of the SSDC corresponded to the theoretical model used as a basis for instrument development.

In study III, the psychometric properties of the SSDC were further examined using an item response theory (IRT) model. The findings confirmed the results indicated by the classical analyses in Study II. Additional information was provided by the IRT analyses, as it was indicated that the scale would benefit from fewer scale points or by putting labels on each scale point.

In study IV, Swedish and Finnish candidates’ self-assessment accuracy was examined by comparing candidates’ scores on the SSDC and a similar instrument for self-assessment of driving skill used in Finland, with driving test performance. Unlike previous studies, in which drivers compared their perceived skills to that of the average driver, a relatively large proportion made a realistic assessment of their own skills. In addition, in contrast to previous studies, no gender differences were found. These results were also confirmed in study V, where the results from the Finnish instrument for self-assessment of driving skill were compared with the results from a similar instrument used in the Netherlands.

Study VI further examined the construct validity of a revised version of the SSDC, combining qualitative and quantitative sources of evidence. There was a strong relationship between the SSDC and an instrument for self-assessment of driving skills, providing support for convergent validity. No relationship was found between the SSDC and driving test performance. Explanations of the lack of relationship were provided from semi-structured interviews, as they indicated that confidence in performing different tasks in the test are different from being confident of passing the test, and that the candidates are familiar neither with assessing their own skills nor with the requirements for passing the test.

In conclusion, the results from this thesis indicated that the choice of methods for assessing perceived driver competence as well as the quality of these methods affect the validity. The results provided support for different aspects of construct validity of the SSDC. Moreover, the findings illustrated the benefits of combining different methods in test validation, as each method contributed information about the validity of the SSDC. The studies in this thesis mainly examined internal and external aspects of construct validity. Future studies should examine procedural validity of the SSDC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Department of Educational Measurement, Umeå university , 2009. , 62 p.
Series
Academic dissertations at the department of Educational Measurement, ISSN 1652-9650 ; 5
Keyword [en]
Test construction, test validity, measurement, drivers, self-confidence
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26764ISBN: 978-91-7264-858-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-26764DiVA: diva2:273981
Distributor:
Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar, 90187, Umeå
Public defence
2009-11-20, Hörsal 1031 Norra beteendevetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-10-30 Created: 2009-10-26 Last updated: 2014-03-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Self-assessment of driving skill: A review from a measurement perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-assessment of driving skill: A review from a measurement perspective
2008 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, Vol. 11, no 1, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Subjective driving skill is commonly assessed with self-reports and many studies have found that drivers have overly positive beliefs in their own skill. The purpose of this review was to examine how subjective driving skill has been measured in different studies. Secondly, the aim was to discuss the methods used from a measurement perspective, i.e., to discuss the reliability and the validity of the measures and methods used. The findings from the review indicated that studies about subjective driving skills can be divided into three different domains with respect to the methodology used. In two of the domains, subjective driving skill is measured by comparing the individual’s own skill to internal criteria: the skill of the average driver and specific aspects of driving skill. In the third domain, the subjective skill is compared with an external criterion, i.e., the actual skill in order to determine if drivers have an accurate perception of their own skill. The conclusion of the review was that there are several methodological problems with the reference to the average driver that can result in biased assessments. Moreover, this methodology cannot be used to conclude whether drivers’ are overconfident or not. In order to obtain indicators of reliability and validity, the measurement of subjective driving skill should incorporate judgments of specific aspects of driving skills. By the use of this methodology, subjective driving skill can be validated through comparison with actual driving skill.

Keyword
Subjective driving skill, Self-assessment, Reliability, Validity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-11294 (URN)10.1016doi:10.1016/j.trf.2007.05.002 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-12-09 Created: 2008-12-09 Last updated: 2009-10-30Bibliographically approved
2. Construct validation and psychometric evaluation of the self-efficacy scale for driver competence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Construct validation and psychometric evaluation of the self-efficacy scale for driver competence
2008 (English)In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, Vol. 24, no 3, 198-206 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to examine the construct validity of the Self-Efficacy Scale for Driver Competence (SSDC). The SSDC was based on a theoretical model for perceived driver competence, based on the self-efficacy construct and five aspects of driver competence. Two samples of driving license examinees (n = 805, n = 721) completed two parallel versions of the SSDC. Participants' mean age was 21.5 years and of them 44% were women. Both versions of the SSDC had sound psychometric properties. The results provided support for substantial and structural aspects of construct validity. Some evidence of external validity of the test scores was obtained, although the relationship between perceived and actual driver competence was weaker than expected. The consequences of the use and interpretation of SSDC are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association, 2008
Keyword
self-efficacy, perception of competence, driver competence, traffic psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-11295 (URN)10.1027/1015-5759.24.3.198 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-12-09 Created: 2008-12-09 Last updated: 2009-10-30Bibliographically approved
3. Using the rating scale model to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy scale for driver competence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using the rating scale model to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy scale for driver competence
2011 (English)In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 27, no 3, 164-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a self-report scale for assessing perceived driver competence, labeled the Self-Efficacy Scale for Driver Competence (SSDC), using item response theory analyses. Two samples of Swedish driving-license examinees (n = 795; n = 714) completed two versions of the SSDC that were parallel in content. Prior work, using classical test theory analyses, has provided support for the validity and reliability of scores from the SSDC. This study investigated the measurement precision, item hierarchy, and differential functioning for males and females of the items in the SSDC as well as how the rating scale functions. The results confirmed the previous findings; that the SSDC demonstrates sound psychometric properties. In addition, the findings showed that measurement precision could be increased by adding items that tap higher self-efficacy levels. Moreover, the rating scale can be improved by reducing the number of categories or by providing each category with a label.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, 2011
Keyword
self-efficacy, driver competence, item response theory, assessment
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-39540 (URN)10.1027/1015-5759/a000063 (DOI)000293384900005 ()
Available from: 2011-01-31 Created: 2011-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Are novice drivers overconfident?: A comparison of self-assessed and examiner-assessed driver competences in a Finnish and a Swedish sample.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are novice drivers overconfident?: A comparison of self-assessed and examiner-assessed driver competences in a Finnish and a Swedish sample.
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, Vol. 12, no 1, 120-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies of subjective driving skill have usually assessed perceived driving skill in relation to the skills of the average driver. In order to examine whether novice drivers are overconfident with respect to their actual skills, a different method was used in the present study, where specific aspects of perceived driver competence were compared with assessments made by a driver examiner. A Finnish (n = 2847) and a Swedish (n = 805) sample of driving test candidates completed self-assessments and took a practical driving test; the instruments differed between the countries. The results indicated that about 50 percent of the Finnish and between 25 and 35 percent of the Swedish candidates made realistic assessments of their competence in the areas Vehicle manoeuvring, Economical driving and Traffic safety. The proportion of those who overestimated their competence was greater among the Swedish candidates than the Finnish candidates. This might be explained by greater possibilities of practicing self-assessment in the Finnish driver education. Furthermore, the results indicate that males are not overconfident to a greater extent than females. In conclusion, when perceived competence is related to actual competence instead of the skills of the average driver, the majority of drivers are no longer found to overestimate their skills.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2009
Keyword
Self-assessment, driver competence, driving test, overconfidence, GDE-model
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-23144 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2008.09.002 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-06-01 Created: 2009-06-01 Last updated: 2009-10-30
5. Self-assessed driver competence among novice drivers: a comparison of driving test candidate assessments and examiner assessments in a Dutch and Finnish sample
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-assessed driver competence among novice drivers: a comparison of driving test candidate assessments and examiner assessments in a Dutch and Finnish sample
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 40, no 4, 301-309 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Problem This study examined novice drivers’ overconfidence by comparing their self-assessed driver competence with the assessments made by driving examiners.

Method A Finnish (n = 2,739) and a Dutch sample (n = 239) of drivers license candidates assessed their driver competence in six areas and took the driving test.

Result and discussion In contrast to previous studies where drivers have assessed their skill in comparison to the average driver, a smaller proportion overestimated and a larger proportion made realistic self-assessments of their driver competence in the present study, where self-assessments were compared with examiner assessments. Between 40% and 50% of the candidates in both samples made realistic assessments and 30% to 40% overestimated their competence. The proportion of overestimation was greater in the Dutch than in the Finnish sample, which might be explained by greater possibilities for practicing self-assessment in the Finnish driver education system. Similar to other self-assessment studies that indicate that incompetence is related to overestimation, a larger proportion of candidates that failed the test overestimated their skill compared to those who passed. In contrast to other studies, males did not overestimate their skills more than females, and younger driver candidates were not more overconfident than older drivers.

Impact on traffic safety Although a great proportion of the candidates made a realistic assessment of their own driver competence, overestimation is still a problem that needs to be dealt with. To improve the accuracy of novice drivers’ self-assessment, methods for self-assessment training should be developed and implemented in the driver licensing process.

Keyword
Novice drivers, driving test, self-assessment, overconfidence, GDE-model
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26761 (URN)10.1016/j.jsr.2009.04.006 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-26 Created: 2009-10-26 Last updated: 2012-06-21Bibliographically approved
6. Combining qualitative and quantitative sources of validity evidence for the self-efficacy scale for driver competence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining qualitative and quantitative sources of validity evidence for the self-efficacy scale for driver competence
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26763 (URN)
Available from: 2009-10-26 Created: 2009-10-26 Last updated: 2010-01-14

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