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Constant adaptation of bone to current physical activity level in men: a 12-year longitudinal study
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
2008 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 93, no 12, 4873-4879 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

CONTEXT: A high peak bone mineral density (BMD; grams per square centimeter) could reduce the risk of osteoporosis related fractures later in life. OBJECTIVE: This 12-yr longitudinal study investigated whether a high BMD from previous high physical activity is maintained with reduced activity later in life. DESIGN: This was a longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS: Three groups were investigated with a mean age of 17 yr at baseline; 51 athletes who stopped their active careers during follow-up (former athletes), 16 who were active throughout follow-up (active athletes), and 25 controls. Main Outcome Measures: BMD of the femoral neck, total body, and lumbar spine were examined five times during the 12-yr follow-up period. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, weight, and height, the former athletes were found to have higher BMD at all sites at every follow-up visit except the last one, when compared with controls (P < 0.05). The active athletes were found to have significantly higher BMD at all measured locations when compared with controls throughout the entire study (P < 0.05). From the first to the final follow-up visit, the former athletes were found to have lost more femoral neck BMD than both the active athletes (mean difference, 0.12 g/cm(2); P = 0.003) and controls (mean difference 0.08 g/cm(2); P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that BMD constantly adapts to the present physical activity levels in young men. Thus, increased BMD due to previous high physical activity may not prevent osteoporosis in later years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 93, no 12, 4873-4879 p.
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26917DOI: 10.1210/jc.2008-1313PubMedID: 18827001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-26917DiVA: diva2:274807
Available from: 2009-11-02 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2013-11-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Physical activity, bone gain and sustainment of peak bone mass
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical activity, bone gain and sustainment of peak bone mass
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Weak and osteoporotic bones are an increasing cause of mortality and painful physical impairment among the elderly, especially in the Western world. Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) accrual during childhood and adolescence is thought to influence an individual’s risk of osteoporosis and the related fractures.

A main aim of this thesis is to investigate the effects that various types of weight-bearing physical activity have on bone accretion in young males during their active sports careers and to study the effects that detraining has on BMD. The results suggest that bone is sensitive to loading after puberty in males, and important gains in BMD stemming from physical activity were observed during the 12-year follow-up period (papers I-III). These gains seem to be site-specific and related to the type and amount of physical activity in which individuals participate (papers I-III). For example, badminton, a sport that is characterized by jumps and rapid versatile moments in multiple directions was associated with greater gains in BMD than ice hockey was. In addition, our results indicate that with reduced training, exercise-induced bone benefits decline, predominantly at trabecular sites (paper II). In contrast, high bone density attained from previous physical loading was partially preserved at cortical bone sites after about eight years of reduced activity (papers I-II). In study IV, the associations between self-perceived health, BMD, and other lifestyle factors were studied in a well-defined group of women and men of varying ages. We found that self-perceived health was related to several lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, which were also related to BMD at the femoral neck.

In summary, BMD in young males seem to be especially sensitive to activities associated with supposed high strains in unusual directions at specific bone sites. A high bone density stemming from previous weight-bearing physical activity is largely lost at trabecular bone sites with reduced physical activity levels. Finally, self-perceived health seems to be associated with several lifestyle factors that are also associated with BMD at the femoral neck.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå university, 2009. 87 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1282
Keyword
BMD, physical activity, men, athletes, trabecular bone, cortical bone, self-perceived health
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26928 (URN)978-91-7264-831-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-11-27, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, 90187, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-13 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2010-01-18Bibliographically approved

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Tervo, TaruNordström, PeterNordström, Anna

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