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Effetcs of badminton and ice hockey on bone mass in young males: a 12-year follow-up
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of different types of weight bearing physical activity on bone gain during an active sports career and to identify any residual benefits in BMD after the active sports career. Beginning at 17 years of age, BMD was measured 5 times, during 12 years, at multiple sites in 19badminton players, 48 ice hockey players and 25 controls. Levels of vitamin D and fatty acids were also evaluated in relation to changes in BMD during the study. During the time the athletes were active, badminton players were found to have gained significantly more BMD in their femoral neck, humerus, and lumbar spine in comparison to control subjects (mean difference = 0.05-0.17 g/cm2, p < 0.05 for all), and significantly more in their legs compared to both ice hockey players and controls (mean difference = 0.03-0.05 g/cm2, p < 0.05). At final follow-up, badminton players had significantly higher BMD of the femoral neck, humerus, lumbar spine and legs (mean difference = 0.08-0.20 g/cm2, p<0.01 for all) than both ice hockey players and controls. Levels of vitamin D and fatty acids were not related to changes in BMD at any bone site (p > 0.05 for all). In summary, the present study suggests that badminton is a more osteogenic sport and therefore related to greater gains in BMD compared to ice hockey. These BMD benefits were partly sustained with reduced activity.

Keyword [en]
BMD, physical activity, men, athletes
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26919OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-26919DiVA: diva2:274817
Available from: 2009-11-02 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2009-11-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Physical activity, bone gain and sustainment of peak bone mass
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical activity, bone gain and sustainment of peak bone mass
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Weak and osteoporotic bones are an increasing cause of mortality and painful physical impairment among the elderly, especially in the Western world. Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) accrual during childhood and adolescence is thought to influence an individual’s risk of osteoporosis and the related fractures.

A main aim of this thesis is to investigate the effects that various types of weight-bearing physical activity have on bone accretion in young males during their active sports careers and to study the effects that detraining has on BMD. The results suggest that bone is sensitive to loading after puberty in males, and important gains in BMD stemming from physical activity were observed during the 12-year follow-up period (papers I-III). These gains seem to be site-specific and related to the type and amount of physical activity in which individuals participate (papers I-III). For example, badminton, a sport that is characterized by jumps and rapid versatile moments in multiple directions was associated with greater gains in BMD than ice hockey was. In addition, our results indicate that with reduced training, exercise-induced bone benefits decline, predominantly at trabecular sites (paper II). In contrast, high bone density attained from previous physical loading was partially preserved at cortical bone sites after about eight years of reduced activity (papers I-II). In study IV, the associations between self-perceived health, BMD, and other lifestyle factors were studied in a well-defined group of women and men of varying ages. We found that self-perceived health was related to several lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, which were also related to BMD at the femoral neck.

In summary, BMD in young males seem to be especially sensitive to activities associated with supposed high strains in unusual directions at specific bone sites. A high bone density stemming from previous weight-bearing physical activity is largely lost at trabecular bone sites with reduced physical activity levels. Finally, self-perceived health seems to be associated with several lifestyle factors that are also associated with BMD at the femoral neck.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå university, 2009. 87 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1282
Keyword
BMD, physical activity, men, athletes, trabecular bone, cortical bone, self-perceived health
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26928 (URN)978-91-7264-831-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-11-27, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, 90187, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-13 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2010-01-18Bibliographically approved

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