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An inquiry into second-home-induced displacement
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
2009 (English)In: Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, ISSN 1479-053X, E-ISSN 1479-0548, ISSN 1479-053X, Vol. 6, no 3, 207-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to shed empirical light on the debate concerning second-home tourism and displacement of permanent residents. This is done by studying the most exclusive second-home area in Sweden, the Stockholm archipelago, and especially the island of Sandö, one of the most affected islands. Data were collected using a questionnaire examining all out-migrants from the island during the period 1991–2006. The questions concern out-migrants’ reasons for leaving the island and the extent to which second-home development had an impact on their migration decision. The core question is whether second-home tourism poses a displacement effect on the permanent population, through price inflation and limiting the supply of dwellings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 6, no 3, 207-219 p.
National Category
Human Geography
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26931DOI: 10.1080/14790530903363373OAI: diva2:275033
Available from: 2009-11-02 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2011-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Second home tourism: The root to displacement in Sweden?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Second home tourism: The root to displacement in Sweden?
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During certain seasons, rural and peripheral locations with significant numbers of second homes become the destination for major traffic and commodity flows. The outcome of this seasonal flow can be somewhat problematic and cause conflicts. One of the most controversial issues of conflict is whether the demand for second homes has a displacement effect on permanent residents. It has been argued that, especially in attractive destinations, the demand for second homes has caused an involuntary out-migration of permanent residents. More affluent second home buyers can outbid the competition from permanent residents. Hence, permanent residents must buy dwellings elsewhere, or must leave due to rising living costs through increased property taxes in the area. This thesis aims to study the issue of second home induced displacement in attractive second home locations in Sweden. This is justified because it is unknown to what extent second homes have contributed to the problems in these areas.

The thesis consists of four empirical studies presented in four separate papers. The studies derive from two different data sources. The first three papers are based on official register data, whereas the fourth paper is based on data collected from a questionnaire survey. The first paper is aimed at finding possible locations of second home induced displacement in Sweden. Results show that areas with a positive population development, proximity to the sea and with long traditions of tourism seem to attract second home owners. The Stockholm archipelago has been deemed to be the most attractive second home region in Sweden and a place that may possibly harbour second home induced displacement. The second paper tests the displacement theory in a regional context in the Stockholm archipelago. Results show that the number of second homes has decreased in favour of permanent homes. Further, the permanent homes’ share of the total property values in the area is increasing. Hence, permanent homes have strengthened their position, implying that dwellings used for permanent purposes have a higher impact on price inflation for dwellings than second homes do. The Stockholm archipelago is in a state of repopulation rather than second home induced displacement. Paper three examines in- and out-migration and dwelling development in three case study islands in the Stockholm archipelago. Results show that these islands have the preconditions for displacement. However, results also show that individuals leave the islands for reasons associated with major events in life such as studies and job opportunities, not displacement. The final paper deals with second home related out-migration from the island of Sandö, one of the single most attractive destinations in Sweden. Results show that the out-migrants left the island on a voluntary basis and did not perceive themselves as being displaced. They state that their life improved after they left Sandö and they are, in general, not willing to return. The paper concludes that people move from the rural periphery to urban areas in order to find a better future and this move is not associated with a forced displacement.

In conclusion, this thesis has shown that second home tourism is not a widespread problem or the main cause of depopulation in attractive second home destinations in Sweden. As for many other countries throughout the world, the preconditions for a displacement situation are present in many locations. However, other causes such as job opportunities and educational possibilities are more important in explaining the negative population development. Second home owners are described as an external threat to the traditional way of life and serve as convenient scapegoats, compared to less tangible and underlying causes, which are far more difficult to address.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kulturgeografi, 2008. 182 p.
GERUM, ISSN 1402-5205 ; ISSN 1402-5205
second homes, displacement, tourism, mobility, Stockholm archipelago, Sweden.
National Category
Economic Geography
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1640 (URN)1402-5205 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-29, S 213, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2008-05-07 Created: 2008-05-07 Last updated: 2010-01-21Bibliographically approved

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