umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Alpine ski sport injuries in Swedish Lapland
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. (Ortopedi)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort.

Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury.

ResultsAfter three years 481 injured skiers (41% females, mean age 23) were assessed. The injury rate was 1.13/1,000 skier days. Knee injury was most common (28%), followed by head/neck (13%) and lower leg (11%). Fractures were less common (23%) than sprains (44%). Among skiers below the age of 20, fractures outnumbered sprains. Helmet usage was high among children (<10 years; 83%), but very rare in adults. The injured skiers rarely tested positive for alcohol (1.1%, uninjured 5.0%) and no effect on skiing or injury rates were registered.A one-year follow-up about the ski injury outcome shows that the mean sick leave was 40 days and that 29% still had symptoms.94 injured telemark skiers were assessed over 11 years (females 36%, mean age 28). The ankle was the most common injury location (28%), followed by knee injury (19%) and injuries of head/neck (17%). Beginners suffered most ankle injuries (37%). The use of high-shafted boots increased (24% to 67%), while injuries to the ankle/foot diminished from 35% to 22%.568 snowboard injured were studied over 10 years (females 34%, mean age 19). Snowboard riding increased strongly during the period (<5% to 26%). The injury rate was 3/1,000 skier days. Injuries were mostly located in the upper extremities (54%). Head/neck accounted for 17%. Wrist fracture was the most common diagnosis (20%). Beginners had a higher incidence of lower arm/wrist injuries while advanced riders had more head/neck injuries.1,833 injured alpine skiers were evaluated over 16 years (females 45%, mean age 24). The injury rate was the lowest of all downhill ski sports (1.1/1,000 skier days). The lower extremity was the most common injury location (51%), the knee being the most commonly injured body part. Knee injuries affected females (39%) more often than males (23%). Head/neck injury came second (12%). Lower leg injury was most frequent in children (<10 y; 32%). Sprains were more common (43%) than fractures (22%). Beginners took fewer risks, had more falls and were injured relatively often. Helmet usage increased (25% to 58%). Helmet users reduced their risk of head injury. The severity of injury (AIS 3–6) decreased (3,4% to 1,6%).The over all results (18 years) showed similar injury incidences to the separate studies but a few specific diagnoses, e.g. knee injuries showed variations.

ConclusionThe injury rate was highest in snowboarding and lowest in alpine skiing. Knee injury, especially in females, was the most common injury, the upper extremity in snowboarding and the lower extremity in telemark skiing. Helmet usage increased rapidly. Helmets have a protective effect. Ski safety work should focus on risk groups. Lift owners need to take the responsibility for ski safety work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå university , 2009. , 21 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1295
Keyword [en]
skiing, wounds and injuries
Research subject
Orthopaedics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-27706ISBN: 978-91-7264-860-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-27706DiVA: diva2:277311
Public defence
2009-12-11, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-23 Created: 2009-11-17 Last updated: 2010-01-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A 10-year study of snowboard injuries in Lapland Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 10-year study of snowboard injuries in Lapland Sweden
2004 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 14, no 2, 128-133 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Adolescent, Adult, Athletic Injuries/classification/*epidemiology, Child, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Risk-Taking, Skiing/*injuries/statistics & numerical data, Sweden/epidemiology, Time Factors
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-14123 (URN)15043635 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-05-23 Created: 2007-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Telemark skiing injuries: an 11-year study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Telemark skiing injuries: an 11-year study
2001 (English)In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 9, no 6, 386-391 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluated telemark injuries in a Swedish ski area in terms of injury ratio, location, and causes over time. During the seasons of 1989-2000 all injured telemark skiers (n=94) who attended the medical center in Tärnaby, Sweden, within 48 h after the accident were registered and asked to fill in an injury form. A control group of noninjured telemark skiers were interviewed in the season of 1999-2000. The most common cause of injury was fall (70%) and the injury ratio was 1.2. There was a higher proportion of beginners in the injured population, and they had a fall/run ratio of 0.7, compared with 0.3 for average and advanced skiers. Ankle/foot injuries were most common (28% of injuries) followed by knee (20%) and head/neck (17%). The ankle/foot injuries decreased from 35% to 22% in the seasons 1989-1995 to 1995-2000. Beginners had more ankle/foot injuries than skilled participants. The severity of ankle/foot injuries classified as the Abbreviated Injury Scale group 2 or higher decreased from 33% to 21% during the study period. Twenty-seven percent used plastic and 73% leather boots. We found no association between boot material and ankle/foot injuries. The proportion of high boots with two or more buckles was 51%. High boots appeared to be protective against ankle/foot injuries. The proportion of high boots increased from 24% to 67% during the study period. Thus ankle/foot injuries were the most common injury location, but have decreased over time. The severity of these injuries has also decreased. A possible explanation could be the increased use of high boots.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-27704 (URN)10.1007/s001670100229 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-11-17 Created: 2009-11-17 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Downhill skiing injuries in Lapland, Sweden: a survey including alcohol monitoring and one-year follow-up
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Downhill skiing injuries in Lapland, Sweden: a survey including alcohol monitoring and one-year follow-up
1996 (English)In: Skiing trauma and safety / [ed] C Daniel Mote, Robert J Johnson, Wolfhart Hauser & Peter S Schaff, Vermont: ASTM , 1996, 10, , 6 p.98-103 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vermont: ASTM, 1996. 6 p. Edition: 10
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-27705 (URN)0-8031-2022-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2009-11-17 Created: 2009-11-17 Last updated: 2009-11-23Bibliographically approved
4. Alpine skiing injuries in a Lapland ski resort in Sweden: a 16-year epidemiological study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alpine skiing injuries in a Lapland ski resort in Sweden: a 16-year epidemiological study
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-29766 (URN)
Available from: 2009-11-23 Created: 2009-11-23Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(218 kB)752 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 218 kBChecksum SHA-512
c1a25386c39b3d74582bc11a015c88b4983f83210d44cf08994fe39447883ca1bddcba121e3c35bd70b5cce51297c0bce078564fb422e199cdf9213fa2d851db
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

By organisation
Surgical and Perioperative Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 752 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 758 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf