umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
'From stun to gradual balance': women's experiences of living with gestational diabetes mellitus
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
Inst. för medicin, avd. för klinisk näringslära, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göterborgs Universitet.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 3, 454-462 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aim: In most parts of the western world, screening routines for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are implemented, however, knowledge of the impact GDM has on the experience of pregnancy and life situation is sparse. The aim of this study was to describe pregnant women's experiences of acquiring and living with GDM during pregnancy.

Method: A Grounded Theory approach was used. Ten pregnant women diagnosed with GDM in current pregnancy were interviewed. Data collection was performed in the north of Sweden over two periods; a first set of interviews in 1998-2000 and additional interviews in 2006 to further explore the experience and reach saturation.

Findings: 'From stun to gradual balance' emerged as the core category, encompassing of the categories 'Struck by lightning', 'Having a personal responsibility', 'Being under surveillance', 'Struggling for protection', 'Feeling socially apart', 'Being sufficiently supported', 'Changing the self-image', 'Adapting to a new situation' and 'Waiting for the 'Moment of truth''. Our findings indicated that the diagnosis of GDM initiated a number of challenges and demands for the pregnant women. Further, being diagnosed with GDM was not only perceived as a medical complication threatening the pregnancy, moreover as an indicator of a future diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion: The experience of being diagnosed with and living with GDM during pregnancy may be understood as a process 'from stun to gradual balance'. The experience comprises positive and negative dimensions. Despite the challenges, the inconveniences and the changes involved, gradually adapting to a lifestyle and balancing the every day life is the prize most of these women are willing to pay in order to secure optimal maternal and foetal health. Knowledge of the experiences of women diagnosed with GDM may enable midwives to provide increased support as well as provide information and preventive measures in order to delay future diabetes mellitus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Vol. 24, no 3, 454-462 p.
Keyword [en]
Gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, pregnant women, experiences, Grounded Theory
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-27730DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2009.00735.xISI: 000281000800005PubMedID: 19878489OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-27730DiVA: diva2:277452
Available from: 2009-11-18 Created: 2009-11-18 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Gestational diabetes mellitus: experiences of pregnant women, midwives, and obstetricians and the performance of screening
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gestational diabetes mellitus: experiences of pregnant women, midwives, and obstetricians and the performance of screening
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, there is currently no consensus addressing the screening, diagnostics and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In addition, there is little knowledge on the impact of GDM on the daily life of pregnant women and the experiences of health care professionals providing maternal health care to women with GDM. Using different perspectives, this thesis examines the experiences of GDM and the performance of screening for GDM in a regional context in Sweden. The studies used qualitative and quantitative methods. In the qualitative studies, grounded theory was applied in two studies and qualitative content analysis in one study. In the quantitative study, a combination of questionnaire data and data from medical records of pregnancy and birth were processed.

Surprisingly, screening for GDM was reduced despite local clinical guidelines stipulating the risk factors indicating an OGTT. Furthermore, the prevalence of the risk factors for GDM in the population investigated was almost doubled compared to previous Swedish studies. Pregnant women developing risk factors for GDM during pregnancy were found to be at substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. The experiences of pregnant women with GDM revealed that being diagnosed with and living with GDM during pregnancy might be understood as a process ‘from stun to gradual balance’. The experience comprised both negative and positive dimensions. Despite the challenges, the inconveniences and the changes involved, gradually adapting to an altered lifestyle and finding their balance in daily life was ‘the prize’ the women ‘were willing to pay’ to secure optimal maternal and foetal health. The experiences of midwives comprised managing conflicting demands providing antenatal care to pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Most midwives felt the obligation to control and monitor the complicated pregnancy, to initiate and motivate the recommended changes in life style together with providing an empowering and caring relation with the women. These assignments disclosed complex conflicting situations and the midwives appeared to choose strategy for managing the situation depending on their perception of the circumstances. The experiences of the obstetricians were understood as ‘dealing with ambiguity’. The ambiguity permeated all aspects of working as an obstetrician within the maternal health care counselling women with GDM: the role of the obstetrician, the context of the organization, balancing the multifaceted interests of the maternal and foetal conditions and the lack of consensus, recommendations and evidence-based knowledge.  

The studies revealed the complexity of the situation for the affected pregnant women as well as for the health care professionals providing antenatal care to women diagnosed with GDM. Furthermore, the performance of screening of GDM in pregnant women with risk factors for GDM was insufficient in the investigated region. The findings in this thesis may be useful to increase knowledge of the experiences of pregnant women living with or managing GDM. The findings may also be useful when planning for improvements of maternal health care directed to pregnant women diagnosed with GDM during pregnancy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå university, 2009. 112 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1316
Keyword
Gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnant women, midwife, obstetrician, grounded theory, qualitative content analysis, questionnaire, medical data, experiences, antenatal care, organization of antenatal care, maternal health care
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-27761 (URN)978-91-7264-902-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-12-11, Sal B, 9tr, Tandläkarhögskolan, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, 901 87 Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-23 Created: 2009-11-19 Last updated: 2011-04-07Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Persson, MargaretaMogren, Ingrid
By organisation
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
In the same journal
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive MedicineNursing

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 260 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf