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Physiological correlates of skating performance in women's and men's ice hockey
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
2011 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 8, 2133-2142 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the current investigation was to identify relationships between physiological off-ice tests and on-ice performance in female and male ice hockey players on a comparable competitive level. Eleven women, 24 ± 3.0 years, and 10 male ice hockey players, 23 ± 2.4 years, were tested for background variables: height, body weight (BW), ice hockey history, and lean body mass (LBM) and peak torque (PT) of the thigh muscles, [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak and aerobic performance (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation [OBLA], respiratory exchange ratio [RER1]) during an incremental bicycle ergometer test. Four different on-ice tests were used to measure ice skating performance. For women, skating time was positively correlated (p < 0.05) to BW and negatively correlated to LBM%, PT/BW, OBLA, RER 1, and [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak (ml O2·kg-1 BW-1·min-1) in the Speed test. Acceleration test was positively correlated to BW and negatively correlated to OBLA and RER 1. For men, correlation analysis revealed only 1 significant correlation where skating time was positively correlated to [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak (L O2·min-1) in the Acceleration test. The male group had significantly higher physiological test values in all variables (absolute and relative to BW) but not in relation to LBM. Selected off-ice tests predict skating performance for women but not for men. The group of women was significantly smaller and had a lower physiological performance than the group of men and were slower in the on-ice performance tests. However, gender differences in off-ice variables were reduced or disappeared when values were related to LBM, indicating a similar capacity of producing strength and aerobic power in female and male hockey players. Skating performance in female hockey players may be improved by increasing thigh muscle strength, oxygen uptake, and relative muscle mass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2011. Vol. 25, no 8, 2133-2142 p.
Keyword [en]
Body composition, exercise test, muscle strength, gender
National Category
Physiology Sport and Fitness Sciences Gender Studies
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30315DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181ecd072PubMedID: 21785292OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-30315DiVA: diva2:281606
Available from: 2009-12-17 Created: 2009-12-16 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Gender and physiology in ice hockey: a multidimensional study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender and physiology in ice hockey: a multidimensional study
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background That men are prioritised over women has been called the “gender regime in sport”, and has in part been explained by the gender difference in performance. However, gender differences in physical performance between women and men can be debated to depend on how comparisons are made and on the fact that there are many different confounders that may influence the results. Even if attempts are made to overcome this and the groups of women and men are stated to be matched, there are still often differences in training experience in years, or differences in training load. Women tend to have less experience in ice hockey in relation to age and differences in training conditions have also been reported. The aim of this thesis was to investigate how female and male ice hockey players position themselves in their sport and to visualise the interactions between society and biology that may affect performance.

Theoretical approach and methods Harding’s three perspectives (Symbolic, Structural and Individual) were applied on information from team administration as well as on results from questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and tests of puck velocity, anthropometrics, body composition, isokinetic muscle strength, ergospirometry and on-ice tests from female and male ice hockey players.

Results Vast differences in structural conditions were found, for example in hockey history and in the financial situation within the teams and both women and men were aware of the gender differences in structural conditions. However these differences were not even considered when comparisons of the ice hockey performance of women and men were made. Nine out of ten female players increased puck velocity when a more flexible stick and a lighter puck were used thus indicating that poorly adjusted equipment may affect performance. Male ice hockey players were taller, heavier and stronger, had more lean body mass and a higher aerobic capacity compared to the women in absolute values as well as in relation to body weight. However, the differences diminished or disappeared when the values were expressed in relation to lean body mass. Men had higher expectations on their situation as athletes and the interviewed women described men’s ice hockey as superior to theirs and consequently male ice hockey players deserved better conditions.

Conclusions The views of women and men may affect structural conditions in sport which in turn may affect possibilities in sport for the individual. Gender differences in conditions thus risk confirming the traditional views of femininity and masculinity. However, by moving outside the normal gender boundaries individuals may change the traditional views of femininity and masculinity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå university, 2009. 73 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1309
Keyword
physiology, gender, sports medicine, ice hockey, women's sport, athletic performance, social conditions, qualitative method, quantitative method, exercise tests
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Gender Studies
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30354 (URN)978-91-7264-893-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-01-08, Betula, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-12-21 Created: 2009-12-17 Last updated: 2010-01-18Bibliographically approved

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Gilenstam, KajsaHenriksson-Larsén, Karin

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