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Energy and nutrient intake in relation to sex and socioeconomic status among adolescents in urban Cameroon, Africa
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5464-5686
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1773-6896
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
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2011 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 14, no 5, 904-913 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To assess energy and nutrient intakes and physical activity of adolescents in urban Cameroon according to sex and socio-economic status (SES).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with adolescents randomly selected from schools in low-, middle- and high-SES areas. Weight and height were measured and information about food intake and physical activity was obtained through repeated individual 24 h recalls. Under- and over-reporting of energy intake and inadequacy of nutrient intake were assessed.

SETTING: Yaoundé, Cameroon.

SUBJECTS: Boys and girls aged 12-16 years (n 227).

RESULTS: Boys had a lower BMI and reported higher energy expenditures and physical activity levels (PAL) than girls. Under-reporting of energy intake was large among boys and girls regardless of PAL; boys under-reported more than girls. Among those with low PAL, over-reporting of energy intake was common. Over 50 % of boys and girls had protein below the recommendations. The intake of fat varied; 26 % of the adolescents were below and 25 % were above the recommendations. Inadequate intakes of vitamin B1, vitamin B3 and Fe were more common among girls, while boys more often had inadequate intake of vitamin A. Adolescents with low SES were more likely to be below the recommendations for fat and vitamins B2, B3, B6 and B12 than those with high SES.

CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of boys and girls reported inadequate intakes. However under- and over-reporting were also very common. Boys under-reported energy intake more than girls and inadequate nutrient intake was more frequently reported by adolescents with low SES than by those with high SES.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 14, no 5, 904-913 p.
Keyword [en]
Adolescents, socioeconomic status, energy intake, nutrient intake, under/overreporting
Research subject
Food and Nutrition
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30843DOI: 10.1017/S1368980010003150OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-30843DiVA: diva2:287682
Available from: 2010-01-19 Created: 2010-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Socioeconomic and sex differences in adolescents’ dietary intake, anthropometry and physical activity in Cameroon, Africa
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socioeconomic and sex differences in adolescents’ dietary intake, anthropometry and physical activity in Cameroon, Africa
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: People in Cameroon are experiencing a dietary transition characterized by changing from traditional food habits to increased intake of highly processed sweet and fatty food. The rapid change in food pattern combined with an increased sedentary lifestyle has resulted in a rather high prevalence of obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Nutritional intake is important during adolescence for growth spurt, health, cognitive development and performance in school.

Objective: The aim of this thesis was to assess dietary intake, anthropometry and physical activity of adolescents according to sex and socioeconomic status (SES) and to investigate food perceptions of adolescents living in urban and rural areas of Cameroon.

Methods: Girls and boys, 12-16 years of age, were randomly selected from schools in urban and rural areas. Food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour dietary and physical activity recalls, anthropometric measurements, qualitative interviews and a background questionnaire were used for data collection.

Results: The proportion of overweight was three times higher in girls (14%) compared to boys (4%). Stunting and underweight were more common among boys (15% and 6%) than girls (5% and 1%). The prevalence of stunting was two times higher among the urban adolescents with low SES (12%) compared to those with high SES (5%). The rural adolescents had the highest proportion of stunting but more muscle that the urban adolescents. The rural adolescents ate in order to live and to maintain health. Urban adolescents with low SES ate in order to maintain health, while those with high SES ate for pleasure. More than 30% of the adolescents skipped breakfast in the urban area. Urban adolescents with high SES and girls reported a more frequent consumption of in-between meals and most food groups compared to the rural adolescents, boys and those with low SES. Over 55% of the adolescents had a protein intake below 10% of the energy (E%). Twenty-six percent of the adolescents had fat intake below 25 E%, and 25% had fat intake above 35 E%. A large proportion of the adolescents had an intake of micronutrients below the estimated average recommendation. Boys and the adolescents with low SES reported a higher energy expenditure and physical activity level than girls and the adolescents with high SES, respectively. Both under- and over-reporting of energy intake were common among the adolescents.

Conclusions: The present study showed that nutrient inadequacy, stunting, underweight, as well as overweight and obesity were common among the adolescents in Cameroon. Therefore an intervention program targeting both under- and overnutrition among school adolescents is needed. Sex and socioeconomic differences also need to be considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå university, 2010. 64 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1327
Keyword
Adolescents, socioeconomic, energy intake, nutrient intake, physical activity, under-overweight, Cameroon
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Nutrition
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30773 (URN)978-91-7264-942-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-05, Allmänmedicin, Floor 9A,135, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
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Available from: 2010-01-21 Created: 2010-01-15 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved

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