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Biodegradation kinetics of selected brominated flame retardants in aerobic and anaerobic soil
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2010 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 6, 2235-2240 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biodegradation kinetics in aerobic and anaerobic soil of the following brominated flame retardants: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (246BrPh), and hexabromobenzene (HxBrBz). For comparison, the biodegradation of the chlorinated compounds 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (CDE 28), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246ClPh), hexachlorobenzene (HxClBz), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) was also assessed. In aerobic soil, BDE 209 showed no significant degradation during the test period, but concentrations of the other BFRs declined, with half-lives decreasing in the following order: BDE 28 > TBBPA > TBECH > HxBrBz > 246BrPh. Declines in almost the same order were observed in anaerobic soil: BDE 28, BDE 209 > TBBPA > HxBrBz > TBECH >246BrPh. Intra- and extrapolated half-lives in soil of tested brominated flame retardants ranged from 7 days for 2,4,6-tribromorophenol to >400 days for decabromodiphenyl ether.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2010. Vol. 158, no 6, 2235-2240 p.
Keyword [en]
brominated flame retardants, persistence, soil, temperature, sludge
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-33266DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.02.010ISI: 000278343000032PubMedID: 20227803OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-33266DiVA: diva2:311146
Available from: 2010-04-20 Created: 2010-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of selected brominated flame retardants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of selected brominated flame retardants
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are chemicals used in e.g. electronic equipment, textiles and plastics for the prevention of fire. Over recent decades, concern has been raised regarding some heavily used BFRs, since the levels in the environment have been increasing. In the present thesis, persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) properties were studied for a structurally varied set of BFRs selected to represent more than 60 organic BFRs. The studied BFRs include: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE  183), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A 2-hydroxyethyl ether (TBBPA OHEE), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (246BrPh), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), and hexabromobenzene (HxBrBz).

It is likely that soil will act as a sink for BFRs. Therefore, studies of BFRs were performed on persistence in soil, and on bioaccumulation from soil in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Large variation in the biodegradability in soil among the tested BFRs was observed. The studied brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE 28 and BDE 209) were very persistent under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, while 246BrPh and TBECH degraded quickly in both aerobic and anaerobic soil. The bioaccumulation in earthworm from soil was high for HxBrBz, TBECH and for tested brominated diphenyl ethers with 4-6 bromine atoms (BDE 47, BDE 99, and BDE 153). Bioaccumulation was also studied in zebrafish after dietary exposure to a mixture of BFRs. It was shown that several metabolites were formed and retained in zebrafish, which highlights the importance of also searching for and identifying persistent degradation products. Maternal transfer was shown for all BFRs present in the female zebrafish. This shows that zebrafish young (fry) are exposed to these BFRs at approximately the same concentrations as female zebrafish during the early-life stages, when fish are usually most sensitive to organic contaminants. Toxicity of individual BFRs and a BFR mixture was studied in Nitocra spinipes using a silica gel-based system. Highest toxicities were observed for BDE 28, TBBPA, and TBBPA OHEE. In the mixture toxicity study, simultaneous exposure to low concentrations (individually causing no significant effect) of six BFRs significantly affected the survival of Nitocra spinipes. The results from the PBT studies presented in the thesis and literature data were compared with the criteria for PBT classification, as set in the European REACH legislation. Further, some BFRs with physico-chemical properties similar to those of identified PBTs were suggested to be prioritized for future PBT testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Print & Media, 2009. 57 p.
Keyword
persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, biodegradation, biotransformation, PBT, read across, soil, earthworm, zebrafish, copepod, BFRs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, hexabromobenzene, 2, 4, 6-tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, 2-hydroxyethyl ether, 1, 2-dibromo-4-(1, 2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22528 (URN)978-91-7264-805-0 (ISBN)
Distributor:
Kemiska institutionen, 90187, Umeå
Public defence
2009-06-05, MA121, MIT-huset, Umeå Universistet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-15 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2014-03-10Bibliographically approved

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