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Effect of high impact activity on bone mass and size in adolescent females: A comparative study between two different types of sports.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
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2000 (English)In: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 67, no 3, 207-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of two different types of weight-bearing activity, muscle strength, and body composition on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area in three different groups of late adolescent girls. The first group consisted of 10 females participating in competitive rope-skipping (age 17.8 +/- 0.8 years) training for 6.7 +/- 3.1 hours/week; the second group consisted of 15 soccer players (age 17.4 +/- 0.8 years) training for 6.1 +/- 2.0 hours/week; and the third group consisted of 25 controls (age 17.6 +/- 0.8 years) with physical activity of 0.9 +/- 1.1 hours/week. The groups were matched for age, height, and weight. BMD (g/cm(2)), BMC (g), and bone area (cm(2)) of the total body, lumbar spine, hip, total femur, distal femur, diaphyses of femur and tibia, proximal tibia, and humerus were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone density was also assessed in the radial forearm site of the dominant limb in the rope skippers and in 10 matched controls. The rope skippers had 22% higher BMD at the ultradistal site (P < 0.01). Both high-activity groups had significantly higher BMD (P < 0.05) at most loaded sites compared with the control group. When adjusting for differences in lean mass and starting age of sport-specific training between the activity groups, the rope-skipping group had a higher BMD of the total body, lumbar spine, and right humerus compared with the soccer group. They also had a significantly higher bone area of the total body, total femur, and the proximal femur than both other groups, and a significantly higher bone area of the tibia diaphysis, compared with the soccer group. In a multivariate analysis among all subjects (n = 50), all BMD sites, except the femur diaphysis, distal femur, and proximal tibia, were significantly related to type of physical activity (beta = 0.25-0.43, P < 0.05). The bone area values at different sites were strongly related to muscle strength and parameters related to body size [height, weight, lean mass, fat mass, and body mass index (BMI)]. In conclusion, it appears that in late adolescent women, weight-bearing activities are an important determinant for bone density, and high impact activities such as jumping also seem to be associated with a modification of the bone geometry (hence, the bone width) at the loaded sites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 67, no 3, 207-214 p.
Keyword [en]
Bone density, Bone area, Rope skipping, Female, Adolescent, Soccer
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-33478DOI: 10.1007/s002230001131PubMedID: 10954774OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-33478DiVA: diva2:313376
Available from: 2010-04-26 Created: 2010-04-26 Last updated: 2017-12-12
In thesis
1. Bone mass in the young athlete
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone mass in the young athlete
1999 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bone mass and bone size accumulate during childhood and adolescence and peak in the twenties. The obtained peak bone mass has been suggested to be a major determinant of bone mass even in the very elderly. Although, genetic factors are the main determinants, environmental and lifestyle factors also play a crucial role in modulating maximal bone mass. Assessing these lifestyle factors would be of great importance for the intervention strategies against osteoporosis.  

The first aim of this thesis was to compare the bone mass and bone size in male and female young adults on a high level of physical activity with males or females on a low level of physical activity. Furthermore, it also aimed to investigate the influence of pubertal maturity, menstrual disturbances, and different body constitutional factors on bone mass and size during adolescence and young adulthood.  

The female activity groups consisted of cross-county skiers, soccer players, and rope skippers. Compared to their age-matched inactive controls, all these athletic groups demonstrated a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) at those sites subjected to the sport-specific loading. Rope-skipping, a very high impact activity was associated with a higher bone size, preferentially in the lower extremity, suggesting an effect of weight-bearing activity also on bone geometry. The effect of menstrual disturbances was evaluated in a group of long-distance runners, where amenorrheic runners had significantly lower BMD in both trabecular and also cortical bone in the lower extremity compared to eumenorrheic runners, suggesting that weight-bearing activity cannot compensate for the shortfall of reduced estrogen levels.  

The male activity groups consisted of ice hockey players and badminton players. Compared to their age-matched controls, both athletic groups demonstrated a significantly higher BMD at those sites subjected to the sport-specific loading. Especially badminton was associated with a high BMD, suggesting that physical activity, including jumps in unusual directions has a great osteogenic potential.  

The main determinants of BMD in both male and females were, except for type of physical activity, activity, muscle strength, height, and different body constitutional factors. However, the relationships with muscle strength and body constitution were somewhat weaker in the athletic groups, especially in the males, indicating that impact forces may be of greater importance in regulating bone mass in highly trained athletes. Yet bone size was largely determined by parameters related to body size and less strongly to physical activity. In a prospective study on adolescent boys, the changes in bone mass during late puberty were mainly accounted for by growth and development, including height and pubertal maturation, and less to physical activity level. Thus, the osteogenic effect from physical activity seems to be of importance for bone mass achievement predominantly before late puberty.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 1999. 300 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 635
Keyword
bone mass, bone area, physical activity, muscle strength, body constitution, amenorrhea, puberty, adolescents, young aduts
National Category
Clinical Medicine Orthopedics Other Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-52747 (URN)91-7191-726-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
1999-12-10, Kempesalen, IKSU-hallen, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-03-05 Created: 2012-03-01 Last updated: 2012-03-05Bibliographically approved

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Pettersson, UlrikaNordström, PeterAlfredson, HåkanHenriksson-Larsen, KarinLorentzon, Ronny

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