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How social movements influence policies: Advocacy, framing, emotions and outcomes among reproductive rights coalitions in Peru.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1975-9060
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With its origins in the early 1990s, feminist advocacy directed at influencing public policies is a relatively new phenomenon in Latin America that is commonly studied at the national level. The aim of this thesis was to study feminist advocacy on reproductive rights at the sub-national level in Peru. Specifically, it explored two research questions: how do feminist movements carry out advocacy to intervene with government agencies and what effects does their advocacy have on policies. This aim ties in with the body of literature that seeks to explain how and what outcomes are produced by social movements. Grounded Theory was used to collect and analyze empirical materials on two reproductive rights coalitions and their members in Arequipa and Cusco, Peru. Empirical materials consisted of focus group discussions, individual interviews and participant observation. Data analysis resulted in two core categories: Coalition-Government Interactions and Policy Outcomes. Linked to the core categories are thirteen categories, which constitute factors that the reproductive rights coalitions “deal with” or “strategize about” in order to interact with government officials and attain policy outcomes. The coalitions maneuver those factors they have immediate control over - tactics, organization, framing and emotions - as a means to deal with those factors they do not have immediate control over - relationships with other policy actors as well as political, cultural and social contexts. The findings help refine existing theories on how and what outcomes are attained by social movements. The coalitions and their members influence policies through various channels by developing an array of interactions with government officials. This allows the coalitions to handle potential constraints on their ability to be a critical voice. Political, cultural and social contexts are not the only external factors affecting the coalitions’ influence on policies. Another key external factor is their relationships with other policy actors comprised of a range of organized political and social groups. Concerning internal factors, the coalitions and their members rely on framing activities and emotion work in addition to organization and tactics. Indeed, the coalitions and their members engage in framing activities and emotion work by means of their relationships with other policy actors to influence policies. Finally, the coalitions perceive effects of their advocacy including, but not limited to, the modification of laws and policies. Instead, outcomes were identified along different stages of the policy process, including the impact of coalition frames on policy positions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2010. , 91 p.
Series
Akademiska avhandlingar vid Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, ISSN 1104-2508 ; 62
Keyword [en]
Advocacy, emotions, framing, outcomes, Peru, policies, reproductive rights, social movements
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-33483ISBN: 978-91-7264-990-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-33483DiVA: diva2:315223
Public defence
2010-05-21, Norra Beteendevetarhuset HS1031, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-04-30 Created: 2010-04-26 Last updated: 2015-03-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Being in the spaces where decisions are made: Reproductive rights advocacy and policy influence in two regions of Peru
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Being in the spaces where decisions are made: Reproductive rights advocacy and policy influence in two regions of Peru
2009 (English)In: Social Movement Studies, ISSN 1474-2837, E-ISSN 1474-2829, Vol. 8, no 4, 427-447 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the 1990s, some segments of Latin American feminist movements shifted to advocacy strategies to influence government policies. Long-standing social movement theories predict that this tactical change to institutional means has two possible consequences for a movement: either it gains greater influence over policy arenas and becomes more effective in achieving outcomes, or it loses capacity to carry out protest tactics and becomes less effective in achieving outcomes. However, empirical studies on Latin American feminist organizations intervening in policies, and recent social movement theorizing, indicate that the relationship between social movements and policy influence is more complex. Moreover, these theories have been formulated based on empirical studies in contexts with established democratic frameworks and institutions. The study presented here employed Grounded Theory to examine inductively the research questions of how reproductive rights organizations carry out advocacy to influence government policies in Peru. Data was collected through participant observation and focus group discussions among two reproductive rights coalitions in the regions of Arequipa and Cusco. The findings indicate that the reproductive rights coalitions develop a multiplicity of interactions with government officials, as a means to influence policies through various channels and handle constraints on their ability to act as independent pressure groups. In addition, the findings show that the coalitions deal with a wide range of factors to influence policies: organizational capacity, advocacy strategies, issue frames, relationships with other policy actors as well as political and social aspects that facilitate or hinder advocacy. The study concludes that the relationship between social movements and policy influence is more complex than portrayed by long-standing theories. Instead, the findings are consistent with, and enhance the scholarship on Latin American feminist organizations involved in policies, as well as recent social movement theorizing that takes into account how various factors affect social movement influence on policies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2009
Keyword
Reproductive rights, advocacy, Peru, social movements, influence, policies
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-33422 (URN)10.1080/14742830903234304 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-04-26 Created: 2010-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Pushing back and stretching: Frame adjustments among reproductive rights advocates in Peru
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pushing back and stretching: Frame adjustments among reproductive rights advocates in Peru
2011 (English)In: Mobilization, ISSN 1086-671X, E-ISSN 1938-1514, Vol. 16, no 4, 495-512 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper examines how two reproductive rights coalitions in Peru adjust their framing by way of regular interactions with other collective actors. Qualitative data were gathered from the coalitions in the regions of Arequipa and Cusco. The findings demonstrate how the coalitions engage in framing practices not only among their members as they select and refine advocacy goals and strategies, but also by means of interaction, communication, and negotiation with a range of organized social and political actors. Through these interactions, coalition members adjust their own framing of reproductive rights in response to what they perceive from other actors, taking frames from them and directing frames back to them. These interactions occur within broader political and cultural contexts consisting of stable and variable opportunity structures. Thus, the coalitions’ framing practices entail stretching favorable interpretations among allies and neutral actors, while pushing back the boundaries in which the Catholic Church leadership attempts to transmit its own interpretations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MetaPress, 2011
Keyword
Advocacy, framing, Peru, reproductive rights, social movements
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-33424 (URN)000298520100006 ()
Available from: 2010-04-23 Created: 2010-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Emotions matter after all: how reproductive rights advocates orchestrate emotions to influence policies in Peru
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotions matter after all: how reproductive rights advocates orchestrate emotions to influence policies in Peru
2011 (English)In: Sociological perspectives, ISSN 0731-1214, E-ISSN 1533-8673, Vol. 54, no 4, 665-688 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emotions clearly matter in social movements, but it is less apparent how social movement participants actively handle emotions in their line of activities. In this article, the authors address this question by examining how two reproductive rights coalitions in Peru employ and manage emotions in relation to different actors who they must deal with to influence policies. Empirical materials consist of participant observation, focus groups, and individual interviews conducted with the coalitions and their members. Grounded theory was used to analyze the data. The authors distinguish relationships with five relevant actors: the internal members of the coalitions, allies, the general public, the Catholic Church as the major opponent, and government officials as the main target. As each relationship requires distinct emotion work, coalition members simultaneously adjust to contradictory emotional expectations while actively evoking and coordinating emotions. The authors refer to this as the orchestration of emotion work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of California Press, 2011
Keyword
emotion work, social movements, feminism, advocacy, reproductive rights, Peru
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50623 (URN)10.1525/sop.2011.54.4.665 (DOI)000304048500009 ()
Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Policy change as one piece of the picture: Outcomes among reproductive rights advocates in Peru
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy change as one piece of the picture: Outcomes among reproductive rights advocates in Peru
2012 (English)In: Journal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, E-ISSN 1465-3869, Vol. 21, no 2, 151-167 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the 1990s, feminist movements in Peru began to shift strategies from a focus on community training to an emphasis on policy advocacy. Since then, they have seen many of their demands translated into public policies favoring gender equity and reproductive rights. Some scholars argue that such policy changes have a limited impact on women’s daily life in Latin America and it is necessary to conceptualize the outcomes of social movements more broadly to include their cultural and political effects as well as the links between these. Findings are presented from a study of two coalitions engaged in reproductive rights advocacy in Arequipa and Cusco, Peru. The approach for evaluating the materials included participant observation, focus group discussions and individual interviews with coalition members. The study found that coalition members perceive the effects of their advocacy on government policies in terms of five dimensions: coalition-government interactions, issue visibility and recognition, policy enactments, policy implementation and policy position. I conclude that a broader definition of social movement outcomes is needed to evaluate efficacy and models for future action and that this should take into account the complexities of social and political change particularly concerning reproductive rights and gender equity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2012
Keyword
Advocacy, outcomes, Peru, policies, reproductive rights, social movements
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-33429 (URN)10.1080/09589236.2012.661575 (DOI)000304779700003 ()
Available from: 2010-04-23 Created: 2010-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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