Chromosome-wide gene regulatory mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
In Drosophila there are two different chromosome-wide targeting systems, the dosage compensation system that equalizes the transcriptional output from X-linked genes between males and females, and the regulation of the 4th chromosome mediated by the POF protein.
The best studied of these two mechanisms is the dosage compensation system. To attain dosage compensation in Drosophila at least five different proteins, encoded by the male-specific lethal genes msl1, msl2, msl3, mle and mof, are required. These proteins together with two non-coding RNAs (roX1 and roX2) form a dosage compensation complex (MSL complex), which binds exclusively to the X chromosome in Drosophila males and up-regulates the transcription approximately two times.
In this thesis I show that roX1 and roX2 are most likely the only non-coding RNAs within the MSL complex. As expected, the roX transcripts were enriched within the MSL complex. Interestingly, one additional transcript was identified within the MSL complex. This transcript did not associate with the X chromosome and is therefore not believed to be involved in up-regulation of the X-linked genes. This transcript encodes for the rate limiting component in the MSL complex, the MSL2 protein. A model is proposed in which free, partial or complete, MSL complex feed-back regulates the amount of msl2 transcript, and thereby limits the MSL complex production.
The second chromosome-wide regulatory system in flies acts on an autosome, the heterochromatic 4th chromosome. This regulation is a balancing mechanism between at least two different proteins, the chromosome 4 specific protein painting of fourth (POF) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). POF binds to nascent RNAs transcribed from the 4th chromosome and HP1 target the same set of genes at the chromatin level. POF stimulates the transcribed genes, while HP1 represses them; together they create the most optimal condition for these genes. This type of balancing mechanism may be a more general way to fine-tune transcription at a chromosome-wide level and raises the question about autosomal gene regulation as a general mechanism.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Arkitektkopia , 2010. , 75 p.
Chromatin structure, Drosophila, POF, disage compensation, gene expression, MSL, heterochromatin
Research subject Genetics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-33928ISBN: 978-91-7459-017-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-33928DiVA: diva2:318770
2010-06-04, Major Groove, byggnad 6L, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Johansen, Kristen M., Professor
Larsson, Jan, Docent
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