Prostaglandin analogues in the treatment of glaucoma
1999 (English)In: Drugs & Aging, ISSN 1170-229X, Vol. 14, no 5, 387-398 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Prostaglandin (PG) analogues are a new class of ocular hypotensive drugs that have been developed for the treatment of open angle glaucoma. Two of these drugs, latanoprost and unoprostone, are presently commercially available. Latanoprost was introduced in 1996 in the US and Europe. Presently it enjoys the most widespread use and is the most well documented drug of this group. It reduces the intraocular pressure (IOP) by a mechanism of action different from other drugs; namely by increasing the uveoscleral outflow. The aqueous inflow is not affected. The optimal dose regimen is one drop of 50 microg/ml once daily, which reduces the IOP by approximately 30% in patients with glaucoma. A more pronounced ocular hypotensive effect is demonstrated when latanoprost is combined with other glaucoma therapies, including beta-blockers, adrenergic and cholinergic agonists or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Latanoprost is well tolerated. The drug reaches a plasma concentration below that needed for stimulation of the FP-receptor, which may explain its favourable systemic tolerability profile. The major ocular adverse effect is increased iris pigmentation, which is due to increased synthesis of melanin in the melanocytes of the iris stroma. It is most frequently seen in green-brown eyes and it is probably permanent. A low frequency of cystoid macular oedema has also been reported, predominantly in predisposed eyes. Unoprostone was launched in Japan in 1994, but there is little experience with this drug outside the Japanese market and the documentation is more limited. Its main mechanism of action is on outflow, but this is not yet fully elucidated. The recommended dosage regimen is 1 drop of 1.2 mg/ml twice daily. No comparative studies in humans between the 2 drugs have yet been published.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1999. Vol. 14, no 5, 387-398 p.
Glaucoma, drug therapy
Research subject Ophtalmology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-34338PubMedID: 10408738Local ID: 744OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-34338DiVA: diva2:320687