Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Smoking and risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: analysis of the EPIC cohort
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
Show others and affiliations
2009 (English)In: Annals of Neurology, ISSN 0364-5134, E-ISSN 1531-8249, Vol. 65, no 4, 378-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Cigarette smoking has been reported as "probable" risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a poorly understood disease in terms of aetiology. The extensive longitudinal data of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were used to evaluate age-specific mortality rates from ALS and the role of cigarette smoking on the risk of dying from ALS.

Methods: A total of 517,890 healthy subjects were included, resulting in 4,591,325 person-years. ALS cases were ascertained through death certificates. Cox hazard models were built to investigate the role of smoking on the risk of ALS, using packs/years and smoking duration to study dose-response.

Results: A total of 118 subjects died from ALS, resulting in a crude mortality rate of 2.69 per 100,000/year. Current smokers at recruitment had an almost two-fold increased risk of dying from ALS compared to never smokers (HR = 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.14-3.14), while former smokers at the time of enrollment had a 50% increased risk (HR = 1.48, 95% C.I. 0.94-2.32). The number of years spent smoking increased the risk of ALS (p for trend = 0.002). Those who smoked more than 33 years had more than a two-fold increased risk of ALS compared with never smokers (HR = 2.16, 95% C.I. 1.33-3.53). Conversely, the number of years since quitting smoking was associated with a decreased risk of ALS compared with continuing smoking.

Interpretation: These results strongly support the hypothesis of a role of cigarette smoking in aetiology of ALS. We hypothesize that this could occur through lipid peroxidation via formaldehyde exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: J. Wiley & Sons , 2009. Vol. 65, no 4, 378-385 p.
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Neurology
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-34692DOI: 10.1002/ana.21653PubMedID: 19399866OAI: diva2:323867
Available from: 2010-06-12 Created: 2010-06-11 Last updated: 2015-04-22Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Andersen, Peter MHallmans, Göran
By organisation
NeurologyNutritional Research
In the same journal
Annals of Neurology
Nutrition and DieteticsNeurology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 36 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link