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The diagnostic criteria for iron deficiency in infants should be reevaluated.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
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2002 (English)In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 132, no 12, 3680-3686 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Diagnostic criteria for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants are poorly defined. Our aim was to establish appropriate cut-off values for hemoglobin (Hb), plasma ferritin, erythrocyte mean cell volume (MCV), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and soluble transferrin receptors (TfR) in infancy. Exclusively breast-fed infants (n = 263) in Honduras and Sweden were randomly assigned to receive iron supplementation or placebo, and blood samples were obtained at 4, 6 and 9 mo of age. Reference ranges were determined using three different approaches for defining iron-replete infants. The usefulness of several variables for predicting the Hb response to iron was evaluated. We found the following 2 SD cut-off values in iron-replete infants: Hb <105 g/L at 4-6 mo and <100 g/L at 9 mo; ZPP >75 micro mol/mol heme at 4-6 mo and >90 micro mol/mol heme at 9 mo; ferritin <20 micro g/L at 4 mo, <9 micro g/L at 6 mo and <5 micro g/L at 9 mo; and TfR >11 mg/L at 4-9 mo. The Hb response to iron was not a useful definition of IDA at 4 mo of age. Hb, MCV and ZPP at 6 mo as well as growth variables predicted the Hb response at 6-9 mo, but ferritin and TfR at 6 mo did not. We conclude that there is need for a reevaluation of the definitions of ID and IDA in infants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The American Society for Nutritional Sciences , 2002. Vol. 132, no 12, 3680-3686 p.
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Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-34998PubMedID: 12468607OAI: diva2:327480
Available from: 2010-06-29 Created: 2010-06-29 Last updated: 2015-01-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Iron requirements of term, breast-fed infants: a study in Sweden and Honduras
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iron requirements of term, breast-fed infants: a study in Sweden and Honduras
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2001. 55 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 759
National Category
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96893 (URN)91-7305-129-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2001-11-30, Tandläkarhögskolan Umeå, sal B, 9 tr., Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:00

Diss. (sammanfattning) Umeå : Umeå universitet, 2001

Available from: 2015-01-22 Created: 2014-12-05 Last updated: 2015-04-08Bibliographically approved

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