Familial clustering of the precursor condition, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has been observed in case reports and in smaller studies. Using population-based data from Sweden, we identified 4458 MGUS patients, 17505 population-based controls, and first-degree relatives of patients (n = 14621) and controls (n = 58387) with the aim to assess risk of MGUS and lymphoproliferative malignancies among first-degree relatives of MGUS patients. Compared with relatives of controls, relatives of MGUS patients had increased risk of MGUS (relative risk [RR] = 2.8; 1.4-5.6), multiple myeloma (MM; RR = 2.9; 1.9-4.3), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM; RR = 4.0; 1.5-11), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; RR = 2.0; 1.2-2.3). Relatives of patients with IgG/IgA MGUS had a 4.0-fold (1.7-9.2), 2.9-fold (1.7-4.9), and 20-fold (2.3-170) elevated risk of developing MGUS, MM, and LPL/WM, respectively. Relatives of IgM MGUS patients had 5.0-fold (1.1-23) increased CLL risk and nonsignificant excess MM and LPL/WM risks. The results were very similar when we assessed risk by type of first-degree relative, age at MGUS (above/below 65 years), or sex. Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma was not increased among MGUS relatives. Among first-degree relatives of a nationwide MGUS cohort, we found elevated risks of MGUS, MM, LPL/WM, and CLL, supporting a role for germline susceptibility genes, shared environmental influences, or an interaction between both.
American Society of Hematology , 2009. Vol. 114, no 4, 791-795 p.